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NOVEMBER, 1883; 









[All Rights reserved,] 

Price Two ShiMhigs. 







NOVEMBEB, 1883; 








IC^XS, / . / 


Pbofbssob Kennedy, D.D., St John's College, President. 

A. Austen-Leigh, M.A., King's College. 

A. C. Benson, King's College. 

OsoAB Bbowning, M.A., King's College. 

J. W. Clabk, M.A., Trinity College, Treasurer and Secretary. 

Pbopbssob Colvin, M.A., Trinity College, Vice-President. 

H. J. C. CusT, Trinity College. 

E. A. Gabdneb, Cains College. 
Henby Jackson, M.A., Trinity College. 
Pbofbssob Jebb, Trinity College. 

A. Fleebono Jenein, Trinity College. 

F. J. H. Jenkinson, M.A., Trinity College. 
C. T. MnsoBAYE, Trinity College. 
Pbofbssob Newton, M.A., Magdalene College. 

G. W. Pbothebo, M.A., King's College. 

F. B. Pbyob, Trinity College, Assistant Stage^Manager and Assistant Secretary. 
J. E. Sandys, M.A., St John's College, Public Orator, Vice-President. 
C. V. Stanfobd, M.A., Trinity College, Trainer of the Chorus. 
C. WaldsteiN; M.A., King's College, Sta^e-Manager. 
H. F. Wilson, B.A., Trinity College. 



Encoubaged by the success which attended the per- 
formance of The Ajax of Sophocles last year, the Committee 
have determined to follow it up by the performance of 
another Greek play. This year they have ventured to 
substitute a comedy for a tragedy. 

To understand fully the principle upon which this 
representation of The Birds of Aristophanes has been based, 
it must be borne in mind that the primary aim of the 
performance is academical. The main object is not to 
achieve a dramatic success, but to solve the important and 
interesting question, how far is it possible for an ancient 
Greek comedy, performed under favourable conditions, to 
appeal to the sympathies of a modern audience ? 

The second question to be decided by the Committee 
and the actors was, how to realise those conditions ? 



Here ajs in the performance of The Ajax in December 
1882, a compromise has been attempted between the ac- 
curate reproduction of ancient theatrical customs and real 
life, on the one hand, and a due regard for the require- 
ments of modem taste on the other. 

The incidental music has been written by Dr Hubert 
Parry. Convinced that the attempt exactly to reproduce 
Greek music cannot succeed, and that, if it could, the 
result would not be intelligible or enjoyable to a modem 
audience, the composer set himself to express in a 
thoroughly modem way the ideas suggested to him by the 
words or the situations, of the play. Once only has an 
ancient scale been introduced ; at line 858 the unfortunate 
flute-player executes a modem tune in the Lydian mode, 
to which it is not at all suited. 

We know from ancient vaaes representing scenes from The 
Birds of Aristophcmes (see, for instance. Journal of Hellenic 
Studies for the year 1881, Vol. ii. p. 309 and PL xiv.), that 
the dress of the Bird-chorus was purely conventional. In 
devising the dresses for the present occasion, Mr J. W. Clark 
has endeavoured, with the assistance of Professor Newton, 
to modify this conventionalised bird-dress, and to represent 
with some degree of ornithological accuracy both the struc- 
ture of the wings in general and the form of the beak in 
the individual birds. 


The scenery has been painted by Mr John O'Connor. 

Much of the local tone of the comedy and much of the 
spirit of the political allusions must be lost upon an audience 
separated by twenty-three centuries from those for whom the 
play was originaQy written ; on the other hand it is hoped 
that the fresh humour of the action and of the choral dances 
has a character which is not purely local or temporary. 

Even if the result of this performance should be to shew 
that an audience of the present day cannot be satisfied by 
the exhibition of an ancient Greek Comedy, an interesting 
experiment wiU have been made and an interesting question 
will in some degree have received its answer. 

C. W. 



The scene is a rocky wilderness, on which enter two 
Athenians, with slaves and baggage. One of these is Peithe- 
tairos (Winfriend), an inventive genius, the other, Euelpides 
(Hopeful), a chattering jocular cit, with something in him of 
Sancho Panza, and a spice of Mark Tapley. Peithetairos 
c^es a crow in his left ha.d, Euelpides a jackdaw or jay; 
prophetic birds which act as guides to the two travellers, who, 
sick of litigation, worry, and expense, are migrating from 
Athens in search of a less troublesome abode. Such a city 
they hope to find by the aid of the Hoopoe, formerly Tereus, 
allied by marriage to Pandion, a mythic king of Athens. 
With the help of their birds, they reach his residence, and 
obtain an interview. *0f what country are you?' says the 
Hoopoe. 'Whence the gallant triremes,' replies Euelpides. 
'Are you Heliasts?' — 'No! Heliast-haters : we seek a snug 
city/ — 'A greater than Athens V — 'No, but a more comfort- 
able one/ — 'You want an aristocracy/ — 'Not at all: I abhor 
Aristokrates/ — 'Well/ says the Hoopoe, *I know such a city 


on the Red Sea.' — ^"No sea-side place for us, where the 
Salaminian galley may come and arrest us. But we should 
like to hear about the bird-life, what sort of thing it is.' — 
'Pleasant enough,' (1 — 161.) And now Peithetairos, who 
has been wrapt in silent meditation, breaks in with the 
announcement of a plan for aggrandizing the Birds, by buUd- 
ing a city between earth and heaven, which shall intercept 
the savour of sacrifices, and wear the gods to death with 
famine, compeUing them to pay tribute, and surrender their 
dominion to the Birds. The Hoopoe, charmed with the idea, 
agrees to summon the Birds to a conference, in which Peithe- 
tairos shall expound his scheme. His nightingale-wife 
Prokne is called out of the brake, and the two sing their 
pibroch of summons to the Bird-tribe (162 — 262). It is 
answered first by the appearance of some peculiar birds, and 
then by the 24 who enter the orchestra and form the Chorus 
of the play (263 — 309). Horrified at the sight of men, their 
natural enemies, their first impulse is to destroy the two 
Athenians, who, armed with their cooking utensils, stand on 
the defensive. At last the Hoopoe succeeds in cooling their 
wrath; and they consent to hear the exposition of Peithe- 
tairos (310 — 461). He, by a series of comic instances, and by 
dint of a comic logic, proves to their satisfiaxition that Birds 
were the deities originally worshipped by mankind. 'And 
how are we to recover our lost dominion V they ask in the 
eagerness of excited ambition. Peithetairos develops his 
plan of a new Bird-city; and removes one by one the diflfi- 
culties suggested. His views are accepted with enthusiasm ; 
and a vote of confidence is passed (462 — 637). The Hoopoe 
introduces the Nightingale to his guests, enters with them 



into his dwelling, and does not again appear, the conduct of 
the Bird-nation being now left to Peithetairos. Here follows 
the Farabasis, which, after a cosmogony, shewing the Birds to 
be more ancient than the Gods, offers, in the epirrhema, 
impunity for crime as a temptation to settle in Birdland, 
and, in the antepirrhema, recounts various immoral advan- 
tages gained by the possession of wings (638 — 800). The 
two Athenians, changed into birds by eating a magic root, 
rejoin the Chorus, and, afber mutual banter, adopt for the new 
city the title of Cloudcuckooborough (Nephelokokkygia). 
Euelpides is then despatched to overlook the builders, and 
does not reappear. Peithetairos fetches a priest to pray and 
perform sacrifice, while the Birds chant a Chorikon. The 
priest recites a litany, in which Birdnames are mingled 
in ridiculous confusion with those of the ancient deities. 
After which, because he had brought a lean goat for sacrifice, 
he is dismissed with contumely (801 — 903). Emigrants 
from the old world apply for admission to the new city; 
a begging poet, a cheating soothsayer, the geometer Meton, 
an oflScial inspector, and a vendor of plebiscites or decrees. 
The poet gets a dole of clothing; the rest are packed off 
with insults and stripes (904 — 1057). The Chorus then 
sing a second imperfect Parabasis; in the epirrhema of 
which a reward is offered to any one who shall kill the 
atheist Diagoras of Melos, or any of the dead tyrants 
(1058 — 1117). Tidings come to Peithetairos of the com- 
pletion of the new city, which is ludicrously described. Iris, 
the messenger of the gods, who had been despatched to 
require fi:om men the usual sacrifices, is now intercepted by 
the Bird-scouts and brought before Peithetairos, who sends 


her back to heaven with scoffs and threats (1118—1266). A 
herald from earth relates the enthusiasm which is inspired at 
Athens by the foundation of the Bird-city. Crowds, he says, 
are on their way to demand wings. Peithetairos, with his 
slaves, prepares a supply of these. The first candidate is 
a young man who wants to get rid of his father. Peithe- 
tairos dissuades him from this purpose, supplies him with 
wings, a spur and a crest, and sends him to fight his country's 
battles in Thrace. A professed Informer appears, who desires 
wings to fly to and from the islands in pursuit of his dis- 
honest business. He is severely scourged and dismissed. 
(1269 — 1469). A Stasimon follows, shewing up the poltroon 
Kleonumos and the cloak-robber Orestes. Then enters 
Prometheus as a deserter from heaven, hidden under a 
sunshade or umbrella. He tells Peithetairos that the gods 
are reduced to starvation, and are sending an embassy to 
treat for peace. He advises that the only terms accepted be, 
that the sceptre shall be restored to the Birds, and Royalty, 
the aU-powerftil handmaid of Zeus, be given to Peithetairos 
in marriage. The scene now changes to the kitchen of 
Qoudcuckooborough. Then appear the three divine am- 
bassadors, Poseidon the courtier, Herakles the glutton, and 
Triballos the barbarian. Peithetairos, who is cooking a 
repast, of which the chief dish consists of birds put to death 
for insurrection against the democratic birds, gains the 
support of Herakles by the savour of dainties, and other 
tempting promises. Herakles wins over Triballos, and, 
Poseidon being thus outvoted, the demands of Peithetairos 
are conceded. He proceeds to heaven with the three am- 
bassadors to receive his bride. A messenger announces the 


approach of the bridal pair. Peithetairos, who wields the 
thunderbolts of Zeus, descends with Royalty from a chariot, 
amidst the acclamations of the Birds. The nuptial pro- 
cession is formed, and marches forth to the sound of exulting 


B. M. K. 

* The translator desires to aoknowledge his debt of gratitude to Mr 
F. J. H. Jenkinson, Fellow of Trinity College, for able cooperation in 
editing the Greek text. 




Hoopoe . 



Priest . 



Meton . 


Plebiscite Vendor 

First Messenger 

Second Messenger 


Herald . 







Third Messenger 

Basileia . 

Jjcader of the Chorus 

Mr M. B. James, Eing*s College. 

Mr H. A. Newton, Magdalene College. 

Mr F. R. Pbyob, Trinity College. 

Mr G. J. Maquay, Trinity College. 

Mr F. L. NoBBis, Trinity College. 

Mr A. C. Benson, King's College. 

Mr J. D. OuvBY, Trinity HalL 

Mr H. F. W. Tatham, Trinity CoUege. 

Mr F. B. WiNTHROP, Trinity College. 

Mr L. N. GuiLLEMABD, Trinity College. 

Mr E. A. Gabdneb, Caius College. 

Mr J. D. OuvBY, Trinity Hall. 

Mr F. R. Pbyob, Trinity College. 

Mr L. J. Maxsb, King's College. 

Mr F. B. WiNTHBOP, Trinity College. 

Mr A. FiiEEMiNO JeneIn, Trinity College. 

Mr L. N. GuiLLEMABD, Trinity College. 

Mr H. J. C. CnsT, Trinity College. 

Mr B. Thbelfall, Cains College. 

Mr. B. W. White-Thomson, King's College. 

Mr H. F. W. Tatham, Trinity College. 

Mr J. D. OuvBY, Trinity Hall. 

Mr E. A. Gabdneb, Caius College. 

Mr S. M. Leathes, Trinity College. 


Blandfobd, W. H. 
Boyle, W. H. D. 
Cobb, J. B. 
Dunn, A. T. B. 
Gk)TT, C. R. 
Habbison, a. 
Eynaston, W. H. 
Lanoe, E. M. 
Langham, F. G. 
Maquay, G. J. 


Sing, J. M. 
Stables, W. H. 
sumkebhayes, h. 
Thomas, P. A. 
White-Thomson, L. J. 
Wilson Fox, H. 
Wilson, H. F. 

Trinity College. 
King's College. 
Emmanuel College. 
Trinity College. 
Jesus Collega 
Christ's College. 
St John's College. 
Jesus College. 
Trinity Hall. 
Trinity College. 
Trinity College. 
Christ's College. 
Trinity College. 
Emmanuel College. 
King's College. 
King's College. 
Trinity College. 
Trinity College. 

The Parabasis wiQ be spoken by Mr C. Platts, Trinity College, and 
the songs incidental to the part of the Hoopoe will be sung by Mr G. 
J. Maquay. 

Conductor of the Music Mr C. V. Stanfobd. 
Stage-manager Mr Chables Waldstein. 




if^V Tz-JSJ^^t 




Scene : a toild tract, with hush and rock : a tree in the distance, 
Enter Feithetairos and Euelpidbs with daves. The former 
carries a crow, the latter a jay, 

Eu. R3BSHITRAIGHT, where the tree stands out — ^is 


that the track ? [To the jay. 

Fei. Plague take you! mine again is 
croaking back. 
Eu. Still up and down, old sinner, must we pace? 
'Twill kill us both, this vain way-weaving race. 

Pei, That I, poor wretch, believing in a crow, 5 

More than a thousand furlongs round should go ! 

Eu. That I, bad luck ! believing in a jay, 
Should knock my wretched toe-nails all away ! 

Pei. Tis past my knowledge where on earth we stand. 
Eu. Could you from hence find out the fatherland? 10 

. Pei. That not e'en Exekestides could do. 
Eu. Woe, woe ! 
Pei. Tliat road, my friend, I leave to you. 


Scene : a wild tract, with hvsh amd rock : a tree in iJie distance. 
Enter Feithetaibos amd Euelpides with slaves, Theform&r 
carries a crow, the latter a jay. 

ET. 'IE9i^B^P@HN Kekeiet^y ^ to BevSpov ^alverai; 

[To the jay, 

IIEI. iuippwyelri^' ifjie S' av Kpoo^ec 

ET. t/, CO irovr]py ava> kclto) irTuLVVTrofiev ; 

diroXovfied^ aWa)<$ rrjv oSov 7rpo<f>opovfi€V(o, 
IIEI. t3 S' ifjik Kopdurg iretOoiievov top aff\u)v 5 

6S0V irepieKdelv (TTaSLa TrXetv fj j^/Xta. 
ET. t3 S' ifie Ko\oL& ireidofievov top Bv<rfJLOpop 

diroo'TroBTJa'ai roif^ ovvxa^ rdop BaKTvXcDP, 
IIEI. oKTC oi)S' iirov yrjs itrfiep olB^ €70)7* en, 
ET. iprevOevl rrjp TrarplB* ap i^evpot^ av ttpu; 10 

IIEI. oxf^ dp fid AC ipyerevdep ^^^rjK€arlBri<i, 
ET. oXfWL 
IIEI. av fjbip, (3 Tap, Ttjp oBop Tavrrjp Wl, 



Eu, A scurvy trick he's played us, he o' the Birdmart, 
Fhilokrates the poulterer, in his craze: 

He said this pair would find for us the hoopoe; is 

And so he sold this brat of Tharraleides, 
This jay, for twopence, and yon crow for sixpence; 
But all the creatures knew was — how to peck. 
Now what do you gape at? somewhere down the rocks 20 

Do you propose to push us ? here's no road. \To the jay, 

Pei. Nor here, I vow; no vestige of a path. 

Eu, Your crow says something, doesn't she, of the way ? 

Fd, Her croak is different from before, by Jove. 

Eu, But, pray, what says she of the road? 2s 

Pd. * I'U maul 

And gnaw your fingers off,' she says : that's alL 

Eu, Now isn't it monstrous hard that, when we want 
To go to the ravens, and are quite prepared. 
Yet after all we can't find out the way? 
Know, gentles, ye that come to hear our plot, do 

We're stricken with a certain malady. 
The opposite of that which Sakas has: 
He, no true citizen, is struggling in; 
While we, full-franchised both in tribe and clan. 
Citizens in the midst of citizens, 
With none to scare us, from our fatherland 
Flew out, as fast as both our feet could waft us; 35 


ET. ^ Beiva V(o SiSpaKCv ovk t&v opvitov, 

6 irivaKOTTdiXT)^ ^iKo/cpdrr)^ fi€\ayxoX£vy 
09 Tft)S' e^acKe v&v ^pdaetv rov Trjpia' 15 

KairiSoTO rhv fiev QappaXelBov tovtovl 
KoKoiov o^oXov, rrjvBeSl rptto^oKov' 
T(o S* OVK dp ^<rT7]v ovSev dX\o ttX^v Sdfcveiv. 
Kot vvv tI KeyTjva^'y e<T0* ottoi Kara r&v irerp&v 20 
Tlfid<i er' <ffe*9; ov yap ear evravdd rt^ 
0S09. [To the jay, 

IIEL ovZk fid A" ivravOd y drpairo^ ovBafJLov, 

ET. TL S'; 7] Kopdvrj t^9 oSov ti Xiyet irept; 
IIEI. ov ravrd xpoi^ei fid Ala vvv re xal t6t€, 
ET. rl Si) \iyeL irepX t^9 ohov ; 25 

IIEI. TV S* a\Xo *y rj 

PpvKOva direheaOai, (fyrja-l fioi toi)9 haKTvKov^ ; 
ET. ov ieivov ovv Bfjr ia-rlv rjfia^ Beofievov^ 
69 KopaKa^ ekOeiv KaX Trapea-Kcvacrfiivov^ 
eireira firj ^^evpelv Svvaxr0ac rfjv oSov ; 
i^fi€t<; ydp, £vSpe^ oi irapovre^ iv \6y^, 30 

voaov voaovfiev rrjv ivavrlav ^dKa\ 
o fikv ydp OVK &v acrT09 ia-^Ld^erac, 
Tjfiek Sk i^vXy Kal yivei TLfidfievoi, 
doTol fier daroiv, ov ao^ovvro^ ovBevb^ 
dveiTTOfieff* eK rf}^ irarplBo^ dfi^olv roiv ttoBoiv, 35 


Not moved by hatred of that city's self, 

As 'twere not in its nature great and happy, 

And free to all alike — to pay their fines in: 

"No, faith! cicalas for a month or two 

Are chirping on the shoots : Athenians ever 40 

Are chirping on the suits their lifetime through. 

Such are the reasons why we gang this gait: 

With sacred corbel, pot and myrtle-sprays, 

We wander, seeking for a suitless spot, 

Where we may settle down and spend our lives. 45 

In short we're bound to Tereus' court, the hoopoe; 

From him we wish to learn, if such a city 

He e'er descried in any of his flights. 

Fei. Holloa, Sir I 

^iL Well, what now? 

Fei. The crow some time 

Makes upward signs to me. 60 

Eu. Ay, and this jay 

Stares upward open-mouth'd as shewing me something. 
There must be birds, no question, hereabouts: 
But, if we make a noise, we soon shall know. 

Fei. I'll tell you what to do : just give the rock 
A shin-stroke. . 

Eu. By all means; and you a head-stroke; 

A double knock will make a double noise. 56 

Fei. Well, take a stone and strike. 


avTtjv fikv 00 fiiaovpT eKelvqv Tfjv iroKiv 

TO fir) ov fJLcyaX'qv elvat, <f>va€C fcevSaifiova 

Kol iraa-i Koi^vrjv ivaTToriaav 'xprjfiara. 

oi fi€v yap ovv rimye^ iva yJf\v ^ Zvo 

hrX t£v Kpah&v q,iova^ ^A6rfvaioi S' del 40 

iirl TcSi; hiK&v qZovat Trama t6v jSlov. 

Sta ravra rovSe rov fiaSov fiaZl^ofiev^ 

teavovv 8* expvre xal yjjTpav icai fivpplva^ 

*n\apoifi€0a ^rjTOVirre Toirov airpay^ova^ 

iirov Ka6iBpv0ivT€ Siayevolfieff av. 45 

o 8e ariKo^ v^v iarrc irapa rov Tffpia 

t6v Siroira, irap ixelvov irvOiadai, Seofiipto, 

el irov TOMVTr)v elSe iroXiv ^ ^ireirrero. 


ET. tL loTip; 

IIEI. f/ KOpdvTj flOl TTokiU 

dvfo Ti ^pa^et. 50 

ET. yti Ko\o^^ ovToal 

av(o Kiyrfveif wcrTrepel Seifcvv^ rl fioiy 
tcovK iaff* 27ra>9 ovk eariv ivravO* opvecu 
etcrofieOa S' avrliCj fjv iroirjafoiiev y^6<f>ov. 

IIEI. aXX' olaO* S Spdaov; r^ aKekec 6eve rfjv irerpau, 

ET. <rv Sk T§ K€<f>aKy y, Xv ^ 8i7r\datx>^ 6 '^6(l>o^. 55 

IIEI. (TV S' oSv \l0<p k6'^ov \afi(iv. 


Eu, 111 do youip bidding. 

Boy, boy! 

Pel. What's that? you call the Hoopoe 'boy*? 
Ought you not rather to cry *Hoopopoy'? 

Eu, Hoopopoy 1 whooping once, it seems, won't do. 
Hoopopoy ! eo 

Enter Runner-bird ^rom the hush, 

Eun, Who are these? Who calls my lord? 

Evh Apollo guard us? what a monstrous yawn! 

RvM, Me miserable ! they're a brace of fowlers. 

Eu, But pr'ythee say, what animal are you? 

Run, I am a slave-bird. 70 

Eu, Did some cock defeat you? 

Run, Not so: but when my lord became a hoopoe. 
He prayed that I too might become a bird; 
So should he have a pursuivant and page. 

Eib, One bird then needs another for a page? 

Run, My master does, by reason, I suppose, 75 

That he was formerly a man; and so. 
When he would lunch upon Phalerian whitebait, 
I run to fetch him whitebait, dish in hand. 
Soup if he craves, ladle and pot are wanted : 
I run for a ladle. 

Eu, 'Tis the Runner-bird. 


ET. irdvv 7', el BoKet 

iraX iral, 
IIEI. tI Xeyet^j 0VT09; rov hroira iral #ca\6?9 ; 

ovK dvrX Tov 7rafcSo9 cr' ixPV^ iiroiroi KoXeiv; 
ET. iiroTTot TTOAiJcret? rol fie KSTrreiv aZ0L^ av. 

hroirol. 60 

Enter Eunner-bird yremi the htish, 
TPO. t/v€9 oiJTOt; t/9 o ^SocSi' tov Seairorrfv; 

ET. "A-TToXXoi/ aTTorpoTrate, rov ')(aafiriiiaTO^, 
TPO. o!/iO£ TaXa9, opvcOoffrjpa rovrtoL 
ET. aTa/9 cr^ ri Orjplov ttot €4 7r/)09 to/p 0€(5p\ 
TPO. opvi^ eywye BovXo^. 70 

ET. 1]TTI]01]S Tiv6^ 

dXjefcrpvovo^ ; 

TPO. oi)/c, aXX' 2t€ Tre/) 6 SecrrroTiy? 

eiroy^ iyeveTO, rore yeviaOav fi Tjv^aro 
opviVf IV atco\ovuov oiaKovov r €j(rj. 

ET. Belrai ycLp 8pvi^ koI BcukSvov rivo^; 

TPO. oSt6^ 7' &T olfjbav irporepov avOptoiro^ iror oSv' 75 
ore fikv epa ffxx^etu d(f>va^ (fyaXrjpiKd^, 
Tpex^ *fr d<f>va^ Xaffdv €7(0 to Tpvp\iov' 
irvov^ S* einOvfiel Bel re ropvwj^ xal 'xyrpa^, 
rpixo^ VI Topiivfjv. 

ET. rpo')(tKo^ opvi^ ovroaL 


I'll tell you, Runner, what to do: go call so 

Your master for us. 

Hun. Nay, but he's just gone 

To take a nap after a hearty meal 
Of myrtle-berries, with a gnat or two. 

j^i«, Well, wake him all the same. 

Bun. I'm very sure 

Hell be displeas'd, but for your sakes I'll wake him. 

[Exit Runner-bird, 

Pei. Go and be hang'd, for frightening me to death. 85 

Eu. Woe's me, unlucky wight ! my jay too's gone 
In terror. 

Pei. O you biggest of big cowards. 
Your fright it was allowed the jay to go. 

Uti, Pray didn't you tumble down and loose the crow? 

Pei. Not I, by Jove. flo 

Eu. Where is shel 

Pei. Flown away. 

Eu. Oh, you didn't loose her, bravest of the brave. 

The Hoopoe speaks from the bush, 
Hoo. Open the greenwood, that I may come forth. 

Enter Hoopoe. 
Eu. Great Herakles! what animal is here? 


olaS* ovv o Spdaov, <Z Tpo'x^cXei rbv Betnrorrjv 80 
rjfiiif KoKeaov, 
TPO. oTOC dprUo^ vrj rdv Ala 

evSec KaTa<f)aywv fivpra zeal aep^ov^ Tiva^. 

ET. ifiG)^ eireyeipop avrov. 


TPO. o2Sa /Lt^i/ aa^S^ 

OTb d^Oeaerai, a^^v 8' avT^v ovveic iireyepoi. 

\ExU Runner-bird, 

nEI. KaK&^ iTU 7* dirokoLy &^ p! dirkicTUva^ Siet. 85 

ET. otp^OL KaKoSaip^tov, p^cJ koXoio^ p^H'^erac 

viro Tov Siov^. 
IIEI. w SetXorarov av OriploVy 

Selaa^ d^fj/ca^ tov koXoiov; 
ET. etVe /iot, 

av Si rrjv Kopoovrfv ovK d(f>'^Ka^ Karaireaoiv \ 
IIEI. pA AC OVK ^toye. • 90 

ET. irov yap ear ; 

IIEI. dirhrTero, 

ET. OVK dp d<l)r}Ka'ij Sxydff y (W9 dvSpelo^ el. 

The Hoopoe speaks from the hush. 
En. avoi^e rrjv fiXrjVf Xv i^eKdoa irorL 

Enter Hoopoe, 
ET. 60 'H/)a/cX6t9, tovtI tI ttot iarX to Or/plov ; 


What plumage thisl what triple-crested fashion? 

Hoo, Who are they that come to seek mel 96 

Eu. The twelve gods — 

Seem to have smashed you. 

Hoo. Strangers, do you flout me, 

, Because you see this plumage? I was once 
A man. 

Eu. We do not laugh at you. 

Hoo, What then? 

Eu, That beak of yours looks to us laughable. 

Hoo. Of course: such insult in his tragedies loo 

Does Sophokles inflict on me, the Tereus. 

Eu, You're Tereus, are you? bird or peacock, which? 

Hoo, A bird am I. 

Eu. Where are your feathers, then? 

Hoo. They've fallen off. 

Eu. Was that from some disease? 

Hoo. No : in the winter all birds moult their feathers, 105 
And then again we fledge another set. 
But tell me what you twain are. 

Eu. Mortals we. 

Hoo. Your native country? 

Eu. Whence the gallant triremes. 

Hoo. Heliasts, are you? 


rk 17 TTTepmai^ ; T19 6 rpoiro^ Trj<: Tpi\o<f>ia^ ; 
EII. rive^ elai p! oi fiyroOi/Te? ; 95 

ET. oi SoiScfca Oeol 

En. fiwp fie atcdwrerov 

opcovre rrjv irripaxriv; fj yap, (3 fei/o), 

ET. ov cov KaTay€\£fi€v* 

En. dXXci Tov; 

ET. TO pdfi<f>o<s rifilv aov yiXoiop ^alverai. 
En. TouLvra fiivrov 'S,o(f>oK\€ri<: Xvfialverac 100 

iv ralf; rpay^Siaiacp ifik top Tijpia, 
ET. TiTjpev^ ycLp el <rv\ iroTepop oppt,^ fj racS?; 
En. ippi,^ irf(oy€, 

ET. Kara irov aoc tA iTTepa) 

En. i^€ppvr)K€, 

ET. iroTepop virb poaov Tti/09; 

En. oifK, aXKci TOP j(^€c/ioopa irdpTa T&ppea 105 

7rT€poppv€i, KaT av0i<; Srepa (f)vo/i€P. 

oKK eiiraTOP fioi 0*90) tip caTOP] 
ET. vo) ; PpoTto. 

En. TToSaTTco TO 76^09 S' ; 

ET. 0^61/ al TpLTjpet^ a I KoKaL 

En. p,&p fjfKutOTa^ 


Eu. No, the other sort, 

Heliast-haters. no 

Hoo. Is that seed sown there? 

Eu. A sprinkling you may gather off the field. 

Hoo. But, pray, what object come you here in quest of? 

Eu, An interview with you. 

Hoo. Upon what business? 

Eu. Seeing that, first, you once were man, like us, 
Once money owed to creditors, like us, 115 

Once gladly shirked repaying it, like us; 
Next, changing to the nature of the birds. 
You flew about o'er land and sea, and all 
The feelings both of man and bird are yours, 
Therefore we're hither come as suppliants to you, 120 

To see if you can shew us some snug dty. 
Soft as a blanket to lie down and snooze in. 

Hoo. A greater city seek you than the Kranaan? 

Eu. Not greater, no; but nicer for ourselves. 
Hoo. You seek an aristocracy, that's clear. 125 

Eu. Not I : and Skellias' youngster makes me sick. 
Hoo, What kind of city would you choose to dwell in? 
Eu. One where my greatest troubles should be these: 


ET. fidWa Oarepov rpoirov, 

aiTTjXiaa'TCL no 

En. airelperai yap tovt itcei 

TO aireppL ; 

ET. okiyov ^rjr&v av ef dypov \dj3oi<:. 

En. irpdyov<: Be S17 rov Seofiepco Bevp' ri\6erv}V) 

ET. aoX ^vyyeviaOac fiovXofievao. 

En. rivof; iripi; 

ET. Zri irpwTa fiev rjaff* avdpeoiros &a'irep v(o wore, 

KCLpyvpiov wif>€tKrja'a^ &a"irep v<a irore, 115 

KDVK aTToStSoi)? l;^a*/>€9 Sa-irep vdo irore' 
elr avOt^ opvlOoov /neraWafa? <j)V(Tiv 

Kot yfjv eireiTTov koX 6aKcmav iv KVKktp, 


KCLL iravG" iaairep dvOptoiro^ oca t* opvc<; ^povel^' 
TavT ovv iKera V(0 Trpd^ (rk SeO/o' d<f>iyfi€0a, 120 

€L TLva TToXiv <f>pd(Teia^ rjpZv evepov 
wairep aiavpav iyKaraKkivfjvai, fiaXOaKrjv, 
En. eireira fjuel^co t£v JLpava&v ^rfrei^ ttoXiv; 
ET. fiel^oD fiev ovSev, irpoai^optoTepav Be v&v. 
En. dpi<JTOKpaT€La-0ai BrjXo^ el ^rjr&v, 125 

ET. eV ; 

rfKKrra' koX top ^xeWiou fiBeXvTTOfJbai, 
En. irolav nv ovv ^Biar av oIkoIttjv ttoKcv; 
ET. Sttoi; rd fieyvara irpdyfiar etrf fiot raBl' 


Some friend should seek my door at morning tide, 

And say, *By Zeus Olympius I beseech, 130 

You and your children take an early bath. 

And visit me : I give a wedding breakfast ; 

Don't think of saying no, or, if you do. 

Never approach me, when my fortunes ebb.' 

Hoo, Poor fellow, what afflictions you're in love with ! 135 
Well, there's a city such as you describe. 
Favoured of fortune, on the Bed-sea coast. 145 

Eu. Ah I name it not : no seaside place for us, 
Where sudden, some fine morning, will pop up. 
Carrying a summoner, the Salaminia. 

But what's the style .of living with the birds? 155 

You know it well, no doubt. 

Hoo. Not disagreeable 

For daily wear and tear : to take an instance, 
You have to live without a purse. 

Eu, Good riddance 

Of one of life's most palpable corruptions ! 

Hoo., We feed in gardens on white sesame-grains. 
On myrtle-berries, poppy-seed, and water-mint. loo 

Eu. Then 'tis a life of bridegrooms that you lead. 

Pel. Huzza ! huzza ! 
I spy a great design, I really do, 
Within the scope of birds to frame, and power 
To work it out, if you will only take 
My counsel. 

Hoo. Take what counsel? 


€7r6 TTJv dvpav fiov irpco Tt9 ekOdv r&v <f>iKa>v 

Xiyoi raSl' Trpd^ tov A^d? rovKv/nrlov 130 

27rfi>9 irapiaei fwc Kal <rd icaX ret iratSia 

"Kova-dfjbeva trpto' fiiXXco yap iarcdv ydfiov^* 

Kal fir)8afjt^^ aWo)^ Troiijarj^' el 8e firjy 

fii] fiol iroT €\,0ri^, irav iydo irpdrrco /ea/cS^. 

£11. c3 SeiXaKpiwv av r&v /caxSv oXtav ipa<:, 155 

drdp lari 7* otto lav Xeyerov evhalfioav iroKi,^ 
irapd T'fjv ipvOpdv OdXarrav, 145 

£T. oifioi firjSa/M<S^ 

fipZv ye irapd ddXarrav, Xv dvaKv^frerac 
kKtityjp Srfova ecoOev rj adXafiLvla, 
oSto^ 8^ S17 t/9 Icff 6 fier opvldtov ^lo^; 155 

cri) yap oUrB* dxpifioi^. 

En. ovfc a')(apL<; €9 rrjv rpifiijp' 

oS irp&ra p,ev hel ^rjv dvev jSaWavrlov. 

ET. iroW'^p y d^eTXe^ tov l3lov Ki/SSrfXlav. 

£11. vefiofieda S' iv Krjiroi^ rd Xev/ca arjaapu 

KoX fJLvpra Koi p/qKtova Kal aurvfilSpuz, 160 

£T. vp^i^ fiev dpa ^rjre wp,^i<ov filov. 

HEI. <f>€V <f>€V' 

rj p,iy ivopS ^ovKevp^ iv opvlOeov yevei, 
Kal Bvvafiiv ^ ykvoLT dv, el irlBoiaOe fioi. 
EII. rl aoi 7n0(6fjLe0* ; 


Fei. What? why first 

Cease flying all about with open bills. les 

ffoo. What must we do, then? 
Pei. Found a single city. 

Hoo. What sort of city could we found, we birds? 

Pei. So, so? you speaker of the silliest speech. 
Look down. 175 

Hoo, Tm looking, 

Pei, Now look up. 

Hoo, I do. 

Pei. Now turn your neck about. 
Hoo, A pretty gain 

'Twill be, forsooth, if I'm to wring my neck. 

Pei, Did you see something? 

Hoo. Yea; the clouds and sky. 

Pei, These constitute, I think, the site of birds. 

But, settled once, and fortified by you. 

Instead of 'site' they shall be term'd 'a city.' 

So will ye rule o'er men as over locusts, 185 

And wear the gods to death with Melian famine. 

Hoo, How so? 

Pei. The air's midway, methinks, from earth : 

And just as, if we want to visit Delphi, 
We ask Boeotians for a passage through. 


nEI. o TL mdrja-Oe; irp&Ta fiev 

[j/fj irepvirkreade Trai/raj^^ ^cej^iyvore?, 165 

EII, ri odv iroLWfjitev] 

IIEI. oLKiaaTe fjt,iav iroXiv. 

£11. iroUbv ^ av oifciaacfiev opvtOe^ ttoKlv ; 

IIEL aX/rjOe^'y w a/ccuoTarop eiprjKd^ Itto?, 

fikiyp'op tcdro}. 175 

En. Kol 817 /SXeVft). 

IIEI. /SXiire vvv avccf. 

En. fi\€7r(o. 

IIEI. 7r€pla^€ TOP Tpdyrikov, 

EH. vfi Ala 

diroKavaofial rov^, el ScaoTpaKfytjao/iaL 

HEI. elSk Tv; 

En. rd^ ve<f>e\a^ ye xal top ovpapop, 

IIEI. ov'x, oSto^ ovp Sijirov VtIi/ opplOtop 7r6\o<; ; 
'^p S* olxlaTfTe Tovro /cal <l>pd^rj6* dira^, 
e/c Tov iroKov tovtov KeKKriaeTat ttoXa?. 
(wo-T* dp^er dpOpooTrcop fikp &<nr€p irappoircop, 185 
T0^9 S' av 0€ov^ diroXelTe \ifi& firjXltp, 

En. TTcS? ; 

IIEI. €1/ ^a^ hrjirovdep drjp iarc 7^9. 

elB* Sairep rjfiel^, fjp lepat ^ovKwfieda 
HvOoiSe, Bo4G)Toi)9 BloSop airovfieOa, 



Even so, whene'er men sacrifice to gods, uo 

Unless the gods agree to pay you tribute, 

Youll not let savoury meat-steams pass your way. 

Hoo, Bravo ! bravo ! 
By earth, by snares, by gins, by nets, I never — 
No, never did I hear a prettier notion : 196 

So with your help the city will I found. 
Consent being given by the other birds. 

Pei. Who will expound the matter to them? 

Hoo, You shall : 

For, though they were a barbarous race before, 
I taught them language, living with them long. 200 

Pd, How then can you convoke them? 

Hoo. Easily. 

Ill enter here at once into the bush, 
And after IVe aroused my nightingale, 
We'U call them. If they do but hear our voice, 
They'll run full speed. ' 206 

PeL Then stay not, dearest bird, 

But, I beseech you, go into the bush 
This instant, and arouse the nightingale. 

[The Hoopoe enters the bash and clixmta, 

Hoo. Geaae, my TncUe, from slumher now ; 

Let the sacred hymn-notes flow, 210 


ovT€o^, irav Ovatoavv avOptoiroL 0€ol<:f 190 

rjv firj <l>6pov <l>ipci)<np vfitv ol deoi, 
T&v firjpifov Ti)v Kvurav ov Sia^pfja-ere. 
En. lov lov' 

pjj '7cJ vorjp^a Kop^'yftoTepov ^Kovaa irto' 195 

&aT av KaroiKl^otfit fierd aov rrjv itoXlv, 
el ^vvSoKolff TOUTLV aXKot^ opvioi^. 

IIEL rk av oiy rh irparfp! avTcfvi Bi/riyTjaaiTO ; 

EH. criJ. 

iyo^ jdp avTov^ /3ap^dpov^ ovra^ irpo rov 
iSlSa^a rfjv (fxovi^v, ^vvwv irdKvv ypovov, 200 

IIEI. TTftJ? hrJT av avTov<; ^vytcaXea-eia^ ; 

En. paiUo^, 

Bevpl ydp ia-jSa^ avruca fidX* €9 t^v X-oj^iyi/j 
€7r€iT dv€fy€lpa<; T'^v ifirp; drjSova, 
Ka\ov/iev avToifi' ot Sk v^v rov <j>0eYp^To<: 
idvirep hraKoio'caaL Bevaovrai hpop,^. 105 

IIEI. (w ^iKraT opvldwv av, p^rj vvv earaOi,' 

aW*, dvTifioXA a, dr/ (W9 rd'x^iOT i^ rrjv \6j(/JLrfv 
eafiavve tcdveyeipe rrjv drjSovct, 

[The Hoopoe eTUers the hvsh and chants. 

En. aye, avvvopA p^oi, iravaat p^ev virvov, 

Xvaov Si vopbov^ leptSv vp,v(ov, 310 


Wcdiing with thy voice dimne 
Lang-fvept ItySy mme cmd thmie. 
So, when thy brown beak is thriUing 
With that holy m/uaic-triUi/ngf 
Though the woodbine^s leafy bound 
Swells the pu/re melodious sownd 216 

To the throne of Zeus : and there 
Phoebus of the golden hair, 
Hearing, to thine elegies 
With the aioakerCd chords replies 
Of his ivory-daspid lyre, ^ 
Stirring all the Olympian quire; 
TiU from each im/mortal tongue 
. Of that blessed heavenly th/rong 220 

Peals the full ha/rmonious song, 
[Mtisic is played, imitating the notes qf the nightingale. 

Eu. O royaJ Zeus ! that bird's voice ! what a flood 
Of honey did it stream o'er all the wood ! 

Pel Holloa, Sir! 

Eu. Well, what now? 

Pei. Be silent. 

Eu. Why? m 

Pei, The Hoopoe frames another melody. 

Hoo. Epopopopopopopopopopopopopoi I 

Holloa I holloa I what ho I what ho I 

Hither haste, my phme-pa/rtaJeers ; 

Corns mmvy, come cmy 

Thai pastfure on the farm^er^s well-sown acres, aw 

ASMA I. 11 

01)9 Sea deiov (rrSfiaTo^ Ofyrfvei^ 

t6v ifiov fcal aov irdKvZaKpvv *'Itvi/* 

ekeKiXoiJifhni^ S' iepoh fieXeaiv 

KodapCL X'^P^^ ^^^ <f>vX\0K6/JL0V a 15 

a-fiiKaxo^ rj'XJob 7rp6^ A^d? ^pa^y 
Xv 6 j^i;o-OAC(}/Aa9 ^ot^o<s aKovtov 
Tot<; aov; iXeyoL^ dvriyp'dWcov 
ike^avrhierov ^pfiuyya de&v 
Xarqa-t ^Ppov^* Sect S' dOavdrtov 
arofidrcov xtopel ^fi<f>(ovo^ ofiov 220 

Oeia fia/cdptov oXoXvyi], 
[Music is played, imitating the notes of the nightingale. 

ET. e5 Zev ^axrCKev, rev (l>0€yfiaTO^ TovpvL0lov* 

olov Kare^eXlTdxre ttjv XoxM'V^ oXtjv* 
EEL o5to9. 
ET. tI €<TTiv; 

IIEI. ov a-ccoTTTJaei, ; 

ET. ri Sai; 215 

IIEL oirrroy^ ^ekmSetv av irapa^Kevd^erai, 
EH. hroTTOTTOTroiroTro'n'OTroiroTrolf 

iiO Ltd tT(0 trO) 6T(it) LTOO, 

troD Tt9 ojSe T&v ifiwv ofioTrrepcoV 

iaoi, r evairopov^ dr/polK<ov yva^ 330 


Tribes countless that on barley /eed. 

And dans that gather oiU the seed; 

ComCj aJtert upon the unng, 

Dulcet m/usic uttering : 

Ye thai o'er the fwrrowed sod 

Twitter upon every clod, 

MaMng (dl the a/vr rejoice 235 

Wiih yofwr soft and slender voice: 

Tio, tioy tio, tioj tio, tio, tio, tie. 

Ye thai feast on ga/rden fruits. 

Nestling 'midst the ivy shoots: 

Ye that all the mowntamis throng, \ 

Olive-croppers, arbule-loppers, ^lo 

Haste amd fly to greet my song* 

Trioto, trioto, totobrix/ 

Ye that o'er the marshy flats \ 

Swallow down the shrHlrmouthed gnals; 

Ye that hawnt the deep-dew* d groimd 245 

Marathon's sweet meads a/roimd. 

Ouzel, and thou of the specMed uri/ng, 

Hazelhen, hazelhen, speed while I sing. 

Come mxmy, come a/rvy 

With the halcyon brood that sweep 250 

Sv/rges of the watery deep, 

Coma and list to novel words, 

Which to hea/r, from far a/nd neofr ^ 

We gather all the tribes of neck-eastending birds. 

Here is a/rrived a sha/rp old ma/n 255 

Of revohitioru3t/ry mind. 

To revohiiiona/ry deeds inclined: 

ASMA II. 12 

V6fi€(T0€, (f>v\a fivpia fcpi0OTparf(ov 

avrepfioXoytov re yii/rf 

Tay(p irero/Meva, fiaXOaKrjv Uirra yrjpvv' 

oaa T iv oXjokl OapA 

fi&\ov afi^LTLTTU^l^eff cSSe Xewrov 235 

aSofiiva ifxovf,' 

Tvo Tib Tio no no no nb no. 

oaa ff vp.wv xard ktjitov^ iirX Kuraov 

/ckdSca-i vofiov ex^h 

ra T€ Kar 6p€a rd re Konvorpdya rd re KOfjLapo<f>drya, 

dvvaare Trero/iieva irpd^; ifidv dotSdv 241 

TpLOTo rpLorb roro^pl^' 

oX (f eKeia^ irap av\&va% ol^varopjov^ 

ifiirlSa^ fedirreff, iaa r evSpoaov^ 7^9 rotrov^s 245 

^ere Xeificivd r ipoevra TslapaOAvo^j op- 

vi<: irrepcov ttolkIXo^ t drTa/ya*; drToydf;. 

&v T hrl irovnov otSfia daXda-a-rj^ 250 

if>v\a fier dXKvoveaat irorrjrai, 

SeOp' ire irevaofievoc rd vedrepa, 

irdvra yap ivOdS^ <f>v\^ dOpottpfiev 

ouDvoSv TavaoBelpcjv. 

rjKei, yap n^ Bpcfjuv^ irpea^vs 255 

KOivh^ yvoofiTjv 

Kaiv&v epycDV r iy)(€ipvrv^. 


Come aM, cmd listen to his plan. 
Hither, hither, hither, hither, 

Torotorotorotorotix, soo 

Kikkabcm Idkkaba/u, 
Pei, See you some bird? 

Eu, By Apollo, no, not I: 

Yet all agape I'm gazing on the sky. 

Pei. So then the Hoopoe went into the wood, aes 

And mocked the curlew's screaming for no good. 
Bird (entering). Torotix torotix. 
Pei. Nay, my friend; this very moment here's a bird 

approaching close. 
Eu. Ay, by Jove ! what bird, I wonder ? 'Tis a peacock, 

I suppose. 
Pei. Our obliging friend will tell us. What's this bird, Sir 1 

kindly say. m 

Hoo. 'Tis not one of those accustomed sorts you're seeing 

every day. 
But a lake-bird. 

Eu. O the beauty! What a brilliant tint of flame 1 

Hoo. Ajid a very proper colour, for * flamingo ' is its name. 

Eu. Holloa, you Sir! 

Pei What d'ye bawl at? 

Eu. Here's another coming now. 

Pei. Yes, another bird, and * holding an uncommon site,' 

I vow. \A second bird enters, 276 

Pray, Sir, what is that absurd delicate-treading muse-seer bird? 
Hoo. Medus is its native title. 


aXV IT €9 X070V9 &7ravTay 
Bevpo Sevpo hevpo Sevpo. 


Ki/cKa/Sav KCKkafiav, 


IIEI. opa^ TLV opvtv; 

ET. fut TOP 'AttoWco *7© /lev ov' 

teairot Ke^V^^ J ^^ '^^^ ovpavdv ffXeTrtov. 
IIEI. aWa>9 dp^ oiiraylr, wv eot« , 69 t'^v Xoyf/iffv 265 

OPNI2 Toporl^ Topori^, [Entering, 

IIEI. &^affy aX)C odv ovroaX koX hrj ta9 opvi,^ Ipj^erai, 

ET, vrj Av opvL^ hr^Ta, rk 'tot iarlv; ov Sijirov raoo^; 

IIEI. o5to9 avTo^ v^v (f)pda€L' rfe ia-riv opvt^ ovroa-l; 270 

En. o5to9 ov t£v Tjdc&dDV T&v^ &v 6pa0* vfict^ del, 

oKXct Xtfivaio^. 
ET. ffafial koXo^ ye kclI ^oivlkuov^. 

En. eiieoTto^ ye' kol yap ovofi avrm ^arl ^iviKOirrepo^, 

ET. o5to9, cS (ri roi. 

nEI. rl ficDOTpet^; 

ET. ft"e/0O9 opvc^ ovToai 

nEI. 1/^ Ar frepo^ Sfjra ;^o5to9 l^eSpov ')((opav iytov, 275 

[-4 second bird efrUera, 
rk TTOT* &rfl'* o /JLOvaofiavrt^ aroiro^ 6pvi<i d^pofidrr)^ ; 

En. Svofia TovTtp M^8o9 eo-r*. 


Eu, Medus ? Herakles the king ! 

Flying in without a camel! Could a Mede do such a thing? 

Enter the Chorus of Birds. 
Pel O Poseidon ! what a plaguy lot of birds are gather'd 
Don't you seel 295 

Eu. O king Apollo, what a cloud ! O dear ! O dear ! 

For their flying now no more can we see the entrance-door. 
Hoo, Here's an owL \I71troducing the Goryphaeus, 

Pel. What's this you tell me? Who to 

Athens brought an owl? 
Hoo. Pye and turtle, lark and pigeon, goatsucker and 
Hawk and falcon, cushat, cuckoo, redshank, redpole, come in 


Gannet) kestrel, diver, osprey, flycatcher, and woodchat too. 

Eu, Merrily, merrily come the birds, merrily conle the 

blackbirds all : ao5 

What a twittering ! what a fluttering ! what variety of squall ! 

Don't they threaten us ? I fear so : sure with yawning beaks 

they blink, 
And on you and me are staring. 

Pei. You are right, I really think. 

Cho, Wh— wh— wh— wh— where is he summon'd me? 
in what region feedeth he ? aio 

Hoo. Here am I long time expecting: from my friends I 
never flee. 

Cho. T— t— t— t— tell me, pray, what to-day friendly 
word have you to say? 8I6 

Hoo. One that's safe and just and pleasant and of public 
use, you'll find : 


ET. Mr}8o<:; (Sva^ 'UpfixXeii;. 

elra tto!? apev Ka/JL7J\ov M^8o9 oov elaeTrrero; 

Enter the Chorus of Birds. 

IIEI. <S UlaetSop, ovx opa^ oaov avveCkeKrai, fcaxdv 

opveoDV ; 295 

ET. c3i/af "AttoWoi/, tov i/e^ov^. loif loii, 

ouS' IBeiv €T iaff vir avrcov TrerofiivoDv rrjv etaoSov. 

EII. avrrji ye y\av^, [Introducing the Coryphcbeua. 

IIEI. ri 0279 ; t/9 yXavK ^ kdrjvat^ rfya^ev; 

En. xlrra, rpvyciv, Kopvho^y ike&f, viroOvfik, irepurrepa, 
vipTO^, lipa^, <f>aTTa, fcq/cKV^, ipv0p6irov<;, Ke/SXtjirvpi^, 
irop<f>vpky Kepyyi'ii KoXvfifik, dfiireXi^, <W^> Spvoyfr. 

ET. lov iov T&v opvitop, loif lov tcSi/ ko^vxP^V 305 

ola ircinrl^ovfri, koI rpexovat SuLfceKpar/ore^, 
ap aireCKovalv ye v^v; oI/mcu, Keyi^vaaiv yi roc 
Kal iSXeirovaiv €9 a-k xdfii, 

IIEI. TOVTO fiev Kcifiol 80K€l. 

XO. iroiroiroiroTToiroirov fi ap* 09 i/caXea-e; rlva tottov 
apa vi/JL€Tai ; 310 

En. ovToal iraXai TrdpcL/ii, kovk diroaTarm <f>tKxov. 

XO. TVTLTLTLTLTLTLrlva \6yOV dpu TTOT^ TTpd^ iflk (j>lXov 

ix^v ; 315 

En. Koivov aa^aXfi hdcaiov rjZvv (o^eKrjGifiov, 


Here are two men come to see me, schemers both, of subtle 
Cho, Where? which wayl what do you say? 
Hoo, Two old men are come, I answer, hither from the 
Isle of Man: 820 

And they bring a business with them, solid, of enormous span. 
Cho. O you worst of all offenders since I first began to 
What do you tell mel 

Hoo. Don't be frighten'd. 

Cho. What is this unfriendly deed ? 

Hoo. IVe received two men, enamoured of a social league 

with you, 
Cho. So youVe really gone and done it? 325 

Hoo. Aj, and very gladly too. 

Cho. And are they now somewhere near us? 
Hoc. Yes, if I am near to you. 

Oho. Alas, alas / betrayed are we, 
Treated with impiety: 
He who was &wr friend, who feeds 
Nea/r us in ou/r common m^ads, 33a 

All owr wncient rules forsaihing, 
AU the oaths of birds is breaking; 
Lures me to a treacheroios place, 
SeUs m^ to am impious race, 
Which was ever unto ma 
Bred in m^ortal ewmity. 

Since it first bega/n to be. 335 

But we shall proceed to reckon with the bird another day; 
For these two old men, Td have them now the penal forfeit 



avBpe y^p XeuTto aocfycara SeOp' dff>l')(jSov ©9 ifiL 
XO. irov ; ira ; -ttcS? <^9 ; 
En. ^/i' cm avOpoyiroav affux^cLi Sevpo TTpeajSvTa Svo ' 320 

^KCTOv S* e)(pvTe irpifivov irpdyfjLaTo^ ireXmpiov. 
XO. cS pAyiCTOV i^a/JLaprdov ef otoi; ^rpcufyrjp iyd, 

EH. fi7}iroD ^fir)0'p^ Tov Xoyop. 

XO, Tt /tt' elpydaw ; 

En. ai/Sp' iBe^dfiTfv ipcborcL rrjaSe 7^9 ^twov<rla^, 

XO, /cal BiSpuKa^ tovto rovpyov; 325 

En. /cal BeBpaKm^: y Vjiofiai, 

XO. KQ/rrhv rjSrf ttov irap rj/uv; 

En. 6^ Trap' 1//X61/ e?/x' eyo). 

XO. la la, 

irpohehofieff avoava r eirdOofiev' 

09 7cip if>tKo^ fjv 6p,6Tpo<f>d ff rj/uv 

ivi^ero ireSla Trap* rjpZvy 330 

irape/Brf fiev deafiov^ apyalov^, 

irapi^rf S' ip/cov^i opvCOtov* 

€9 8e SoXoi^ e/caXeo-e, irape^aXe r ifjue irapoL 

yivo^ dvocLoVy iirep i^or iyiver iir i/j,ol 

TToXifjLiov irpd^rj, 335 

aWd 7r/)09 tovtov fiev rjiuv iarvv iarrepo^ \6yo<i' 

T® he TTpeafivTa Sofcei fioi TciBe Sovvai vvv SIk7)v 


And be torn in pieces by us. 

Pel, There I all's up with us, you sea 

Eu, Tes, and you alone must answer for our dire calamity. 
Por what purpose did you lead me thence? ZMi 

PeL That you might follow me. 

Eu. Nay, that I might cry my eyes out. 
Pet. Pack of nonsense that about 

Crying; how are you to do it when your eyes are once torn out? 
Oho. Ho! forward! ma/rchy advcmce the deadly warWce cha/rge: 
Throw out both wingSy a/nd to outfla/nky our front 
enla/rge : 345 

Since the twain must u^eep a/nd cry. 
And pa>sture to the beak supply. 
For nor shady mountain lavr. 
Nor the cloud that sails in ai/r, 

Nor amy depth of Jioa/ry sea 85o 

Ma^ shelter them escaped from me. 
So let us delay no longer both our foes to tear and bite; 
Where's the general of division? let him straight lead on our 
Eu, 'Tis the crisis; whither wretched can I fly? 
PeL What, won't you stay? 

Eu, To be torn in pieces by them? 356 

Pel, Can you then invent a way 

PAEODOS. . 16 

SuKf>oprf6fjval ff v^ fiyi^&v. 
nEI. (09 a'iroi)k6^e(T0* apa. 

£T, atrto^ fihnot ai> vanf el r&v KaK&v tovtohv fiovo^. 

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opfiav <f>oviav, TrrepVyd re Travra , 345 

irepiPaKe irepl re KVK\a>aaL' 


w Bei rdS' olfid^eiv afi<fx0 

KaX hovvat, pd/i^i <f>opfiav. 

ovre ydp opo^ axiepdv oUre pi<f)o^ aWepiov 

ovre TToXibv ireXayo^ Sariv o ri Several 350 

TcaS' diro^vyovre /Me. 

dWa /irj fieXKtofiev rjBrj rdBe rtXXeiv koX Saxveiv. 

irov V^' 6 ra^lap^o^; iirayira) to Se^cov Kcpa^, 
ET. TOVT €Keivo' irol (f)vya) SiiaTrjvo^; 
nEI. 0VT09, ov fieveU ; 

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nEI, 7ra9 ydp av rovjov^ 80/cei^ 



To escape] 

Eu, I know none. 

Fd, Then I'll tell you how to manage it: 

We must make a standing fight, and take some pots from out 
our kit. 
E%u And what good's a pot to do us? 
PeL This the owl will not molest. 

Eu, But for these crooktalon'd wretches? 
PeL Grasp the spit, and let it rest 

In your front full firmly planted. 860 

Eu. For the eyes what must be done 1 

Pei, Take a saucer or a platter out, and tie it tightly on. 
Eu, O you cleverest of conunanders, all your plan is well 
In the art of engineering youVe left Kikias far behind. 

Cho, Eleleleu, quick march, present the beak; no moment 
for delay: 
Haul 'em, tear 'em, smite 'em, flay 'em, striking first the pot 
away. aes 

Hoo, Vilest of the brute creation, tell me, would you slay 
and skin 
Two men who have never harm'd you, of my lady's tribe and 
Cho, Spare them ? spare the wolves then : can we punish 
a moi^ hostile kind ? 37o 

Hoo, Hostile if they are by nature, yet they bear a friendly 
And the tale they're come to tell you profitable you will find. 
Cho, Gan it be then to our profit, any tale by these men 
Any lesson of their teaching, foemen to my sires of old? S76 


ET, ovK olS* iiro)^ av, 

IIEI. a\X* ey«i rot <rol Xeya>, 

oTi fihfovre Set fJuiyeaBtu Xafifidveiv re r&v j(yrp&v* 
ET, tC hi yv'^po, vd y (i(l>€\r](ret ; 

IIEL yXav^ fiev ov 7rp6<r€uri v^v. 

ET. Tok hk ya/iy^dvv^t roiirSl; 
nEI. TOP o/SeXlaKov apiraaa^ 

elra Karairq^ov irpo aavrov. 360 

ET. TolaL S' 6<f>0dKfwtai, rl; 

IIEL o^l3a<l>ov ivT€V0€vl irpoahov XajSdop ^ rpv/3\iov. 
ET, (3 (ro^wrar, ed yap rjSpe^ avri.Kal arparrjyi/coi^' 

virepaKovrl^ei^ av y ^817 'Ni/ciap raJ? firjX'^vo,'^^' 
XO* i\eX€\eVi x^P^^* Kode^ to pdfi<f>o^' ov fiiXXeiv ixpV^' 

i\K€, r/XXe, irale, Seipe, kotttc irpoiTfjv ttjv yvTpav, 365 
En. ehrk fioi, tI fieWer, (S iramoDV Kcucia-Ta OrfpCav, 

diroXiaai iraffovre^ ovSev avSpe xal huLcrirdaai 

T7J<i ifiTJ^ yvvaiKO^ ovTe ^vyyevrj koX (fyvXera ; 
XO. <l>€ia6fi€ada yap tc ToivBe fiaWov rjfiel^; fj XvKmv'y 

tj Tiva^ Tiaaifieff oKKov^ tcSvS' av ixOiov^ ctl; 37a 
En. o2Se T171/ ^vatv fi€v e')(jSpoX top Sk povp elavp ^l\oi, 

Kal StSd^opTC^ TC Sevp* iJKOVtrip i/Jbd^ j(pi]aifiop, 
XO. TTcS? S* ap otS' i^fia^ Ti xpriaiiiop hcha^eidp irore 

fj (Ppdaeiapy opTe^ ix'^P^^^ Toiac irdmroi^ toa9 ifiot^ ; 375 



Uoo» Much instruction do the wise gather from their 
enemies : 
*Good precaution's sure salvation': this from friends you never 

$ut your foeman puts the screw on, and 'tis taught you to 

a turn. 
Foes, not friends, instructed nations fortresses and fleets to 

make : 
And this lesson saves their children, homes, and all they have 
at stake. sso 

(7Ao. Well, indeed, in my opinion, giving audience to 
their speech 
May be useful to begin with : something wise a foe may teach. 
Fj&i, Now their wrath they seem to slacken ; so retire a 
step or two. [Aside to Euelpides, 

Boo» What you said is common justice, and your thanks 
to me are due. [To the Chorus. 

Cho, Ne'er on any other question have we been opposed 
to you. [To the Hoopoe. 886 

Fei. They're more peaceful than before; so the pot and 
dishes lower : [As he/ore. 

For the spear (I mean the spit), we must still be holding it. 
As, we pace the encampment, peeping 390 

O'er the kettle's rim, and keeping v 

Good look-out : we must not fly. 

Cho. Now again your steps retrace ; 
Wheel into your former place : ^ 4«o 

Stooping there in hoplite fashion 
Ground your temper next your passion, 
That by inquiry we, may find 
Whence come this pair, and with what mini 406 


EII. a\X' air l')(Qp&v Brjra iroWci fuivdavovaiv ol <TO(f)ol. 
rj ydp evXd/Seia ad^ec irajna, irapa fiev ovv <f>IXov 
ov fidffot^ av Tov0\ 6 S' €')(6pd^ €v0d<i i^rfvdy/caa-ev. 
avrlx o>i iroXcL^ Trap* dvhpwv efiaOov ixOp&v kov ^CK(ov 
i/cTTovetv 0* vylrrjXd relxv vclv^ T€ /eeKTrjadat, /latepd^. 
TO Se fidOrjfia tovto ad^et TraiSa^, ol/cov, ^(prifiaTa, 380 

XO. eari fiev Xojayv aKOVcat irp&roVy W9 ripdv Soxei, 

y^p'^o'cfiov' fidOoi^ yap av tl Kair^ r&v i-^jSprnv <T0<f>6p. 

IIEI. oJSe T^9 opyrj<i y^aXaP €i^a<nv. dvarf hrX aKeko^, 

[Aside to Euelpidea, 

En. Kal Bixaiov y earl Kafiol Sel vifieiv ifia^ ')(dpLv. 

[To the Chorus. 

XO. dXKd firjv ovS* dWo aoi iron TTpdypi! ivqvrtdii^Ba, 385 

[To the Hoopoe. 

IIEI. fiSXKov elpijVTfv ar/ova-t vrj At*, dare Trjv yvTpav 

rd re rpv^iw KaOleC t^^ ^^Z^^- 

Kal TO Sopv 'xpy, TOP ofieXlaKOVy 

ireptiraTelv ej(pvTa<; rffia^ 

T&v iifKxov ivTo^, Trap ovttiv 390 

TTjv yyrpav aKpav op&ma^ 

^771/9 * ©9 01/ ^€VfCT€0V V&V, 

XO. avarf* 69 Ta^iv iroKi/v €9 TavTOv, 400 

ical Tov dvfiov KaTddov Kip^a^ 
irapd TTjv opyrjv wa-irep oirXlrrj^' 
KapaTTvOdfieOa Tovaie Tive^i ttotc 
Kab iriOeu ffioXov tlvi t iTTCvoia, 405 


Sir Hoopoe, you I call : what ho ! 

Hoo, What does your caUing seek to know? 

Cho, Who are these ? whence come they ? tell us. 

Hoo, Strangers both from clever Hellas. 

Cho. To the birds what fortune brings 'em? 410 

Hoo. Love of birds and birdlife stings 'em. 
Dwellers with you they would be, 
Ever of your company. 4i5 

Cho, What's this story that you tell? 
What proposals do they make? 

Hoo, Incredible, incredible, 
Far too large for ears to taka 

Cho. His proposals unto me 
Bid him utter, utter, 
Listening to the tale, you see. 
Sets me all a-flutter. 

Poo, Now you and you this panoply take back 436 

And hang it up, in prospect of good luck. 
Within the kitchen by the plate-rack's side. 
And you. Sir, make the statements, which to hear 
I summon'd these : expound. \To PeUhetairoa, 

Peu Not I, by Apollo ! 

Unless they make the covenant with me, mo 

Which with his wife that ape the sword-wright made, 


1(0 eTTO*^ (ri roc icaXtS. 
En. /caXeU Bi rov Kkueiv OeKoav^y 
XO. Ta/€9 iroff o28e KaX ir60ev\ 
En. ^ev(o ao^rjf; a<f> *EXXaSo9. 
XO. T^xn B^ irola KOfulr 4»o 

fe^ iroT avToi irpd^ op- 

viOa^ ikOelv ; 
En. ^/)a)9 

/8/ov itatrq^ re #cal 

cofi ^voLKelv re aoi 

KoX ^vvelvcu rd irav. 4^5 

XO. t/ 02^^; Xiyovav S^ r/i/a? \o70i/9; 
En. aTTKrT, diriara koX irepa Kkiiecv. 
XO. XSyecv Xer/eLV xiXevi fioi, 

\6ya)v dveirripoDfiai. 

En. dye S^ aif KoX ai Trjv iravoirXlav fikv irakiv 435 
TavTTjv Xa^ovTe Kpe/Jbdaarov Tifya^o^dy 
€9 Tov hrvhv eXaay ir\t]Giov TOViria-rdTov' 
(n> Be TovcS' €^' olarirep to?9 X07049 trvviXe^^ €7© 
(fypdaov, SlSa^ov, [To Feithetairos, 

nEI. /xa TOV 'AttoWg) *7(» /x^j/ ov, 

^1/ /x?) Sc<l0<ovTai y olBe BcaO'^Kffv ifiol 440 

fjvirep 6 irLOrjKo^ tJ yvvawX BiiOero 

. ACT I. 

That they won't bite me. 

Cho, Good : I covenant. 

Pel, Then swear it. 

Cho, Well, I swear: if I am faithful, 

Then, by the votes of all the judges here, 445 

And all spectators, the first prize be mine. 
PeL Accepted. 

Cho. But, if I transgress the oath, 

Then by one judge's casting-vote — I win. 

Hoo. Oyez, oyez ! let every hoplite now 
Take up his armour and go home again. 
And note our proclamations on the signboards. 450 

Cho, At every time, on every side, Strophe. 

MarCa crafty ruiture is descried. 
Tet freely speak your mind: 
For haply you may find 
Some useful character in me, 

Some migldier faculty, 465 

To which my witless thoughts neW tra/oeUed, 
By your acuter sense wnravelled. 
Such vantage-ground if you Jiave fou/nd, 
Unto the public ear the case expound: 
Since aU of good you gain for wae 
Owr comm,on property shall he. 
So whatever be the thing you with full conviction bring, 480 

Let it now be boldly spoken : for our truce will not be broken. 


6 fia'^aipOTTOcS^, firj hcuKveiv TOvrov<: ifiL 
XO. . BiarlOefJiai '70$. 

IIEI. Karofioaov wv ravrd fjLot. 

XO. ofjLvvfi iirl TOVTOt^, iraat vlkclv toI^ Kptral^ 445 

KaX Tol^ OeaToi^ irdacv, 
IIEI. €<nat ravrayi. 

XO. el S^ Trapa^airjv, evl Kpcry vixdv fiovov. 
En. aKovere Xeoo* toi)9 ofrX/ra? vvvfievl 

dveKofievov^ Ooiir^ dirievai itoKlv olxahe, 

cTfcovetv S* o Tt av 7rpoypd(f)(Ofi€V iv toI<; iriva- 

KLOl<S. 450 

XO. SoXepov fjLev del Kara irdma Srj rpoirov 
ire^vKev avdptoiro^' ai> S* 2S/ia)9 X.€7e fxoL, 
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o yap dv av tv^U^ f^oc 
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dva7r€l<ra<;y 460 

Xeye dapprjaa^' ©9 Ta9 a7rovBd<: ov firj irporepoi 



FeL My mind, be sure, is eagerly at work, e'en now indeed 
One ready-leaven' d argument the time is come to knead. 
Ho, boy, a crown ! and here, some slave, bring water quick, 
my hands to lave. 
JSti, Is there a dinner in the wind? or what are we to 

Fd. No : but I've long desired to speak a big well-£atten'd 

word, 466 

By which the nation here may feel its spirit deeply stirr'd ; 
So sorrowful am I for you, who anciently were kings. 
Cho. We kings ? of what ? 

Fei. Indeed you were, of all existing things; 

Of me, my friend here, Jove himself. Ere Kronos was, ye 

were ; 

Before the Titan brood and Earth. 470 

Cho. And Earth? 

FeL 'Tis true, I swear. 

Cho. I never heard, so help me Jove ! a word of this 

Fei. You're such a dull incurious lot, unread in Aesop's 
Whose story says, the lark was bom first of the feathered quire. 


IIEI. Kal iifflf dpj£ vrj rdv Ala xal irpawe^vparaL X0709 

ov BuifidiTeiv qv Kaoikvei' i^ipe iral are^avov* Karar 

Kara x^ipo^ vB(op tpepero) Tayy ta9. 
ET. Betirvi^a-eiv fiiWo/iev; fj rl; 

IIEI. fia AC dWd \iy€Lv ^ffrS rpliraTuii fieya /cal \apiv6v 
CTTO? T*, 465 

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oTrive^ OI/T69 irporepov jSaacXfj^ 
XO. rjfieh ficuriKr}^ rlvo^ rjfiep ; 

IIEI. Trdirraov 6w6<r* iariv^ i/iov irpSrov, rovBl, xal rod 
Ato9 avTov, 

dpj(at6T€poc irporepol re Kpovov koI Hcrdvav eye- 


Kol 7^9. 470 

XO. teal 7^9; 

IIEI. 1/1) Tov 'AttoW©. 

XO. tovtI fjLa AC ovK iireirjia'fifjv* 

IIEI. dfiaSri^ yap €(j>v^ kov iroXvn'pdyfKov, ovB^ AXacyirov 
09 €<l>aaK€ Xeywi/ KopvSov irdvTcov irpdniv 6pvL0a 


Before the earth ; then came a cold and carried off his sire : 
Earth was not : five days lay the old bird untomb'd : at last 

the son 
Buried the father in his head, since other grave was none. 475 

Eu. The father of the lark lies dead, I understand, ^at 

Pel. If then before the gods they were, and earlier than 
the earth, [Taking no notice of Ey^lpides, 

Is not the kingdom theirs of right by eldership of birth? 

Eu. True, by Apollo ! so resolve henceforth a beak to rear : 

The sceptre soon will Jove restore unto the woodpecker. 4eo 

Pel, There's ample proof that birds, not gods, of yore were 
lords of men [As before. 

And kings : first I'll produce the cock, who ruled the Persians 

Ere aught was of Darius or of Megabazus heard ; 

And still, from that arqhaic rule, he's called the Persian 
bird. 485 


itporepav T^9 7^75, Kdireira v6<T(p top 'irarip avrf}^ 

7^1/ K ovK elvaty top Se rrpoKeladat nreiinrralov* rrjp 

S' airopovaav 
vir dfiijj(avia^ rov irarkp avT7J<i iv ry K^^aXfi 

Karopv^ac, 475 

ET, 6 irarrjp apa t^9 /copvBov vvvl Kelrai reOpew^ Ke- 

nEI. ovKovp hfiT el irporepoL fiep 7^9 irporepoi Bk de&p 

iyepoPTO, \Ta1dng no notice of Eudpides, 

o59 irpeapxrraTaap avrdip opraop 6p0(S<; eaff* 77 jScuriXela; 

ET. prj TOP ' AttoWo) • irdpv toIpvp ')(pfj pvyy(p.f; fioa-xeip ae 

TO Xoiirop' 
(W9 diroBdaec Tax€(o^ 6 Zei)9 to aKfjiTTpop t£ BpuKo- 

XdirT'ff. 480 

nEI. cl)9 oi5%l Oeol Tolpvp '^px'^v '''^^ dpOpcoTroDP to 

TToXaiop, [As before. 

dXX* oppcde^y /cdfiaclXevop, ttoW* iari TC/cfiijpui tovtcjp^ 
avTiKa S* vfup TTp&T iiriBel^fo top d\€/CTpv6p*y ©9 

VPX^ re Uepa-wp irdpTtop irpotepo^' Aapelov koX M€7a- 

(Sore KtiKelTai irepaiico^ oppv^ diro 7^9 dpyr}^ €t 

iK€iprj<:, 485 

Eu, like the great king he therefore struts, and on his 
head, full-drest, 
Alone of all the birds he wears erect the turban crest. 

Pel. So strong was he, so mighty then, so big, that to this 
hour, {As he/ore. 

When he his matin alto sings, in memory of that pow'r 4B9 
Smiths, potters, tanners, cordwainers, tradesfolk of every guild, 
Comfactors, bathing men, and such as frame the lyre and shield, 
Spring up to work: ere close of night some cloak-marauders 

Eu, Ask me to give that evidence: I know it to my 

I lost a cloak of Phrygian wool all through that bird, I did: 
For, to a baby's naming-feast being in the city bid, 
I drank a rouse and dozed awhile; then crew this cock ere 

yet 486 

The rest had supped: I surely thought 'twas mom, and ofif 

I set 
To Alimus; but scarce I'd poked my nose beyond the wall, 

A footpad's bludgeon smote my back, I fell and tried to bawl : 


ET. SiA rauT dp* e^<ov koI vvv Sairep ^curiXei^ 6 fiiya^ 

€7rl T^9 /c€^a\^9 Tfjv Kvpfiaalav rSv opvLdcDV /aovo^ 

IIEI. ovTO) S' iaxv^ re Kol fiiya^ ^p t6t€ koI ttoXv^, &crT 

€Ti KOI vvv {As before, 

dird T^9 pcofirjf; t^9 tot' eKelvrj^, birorav v6/iov SpOpiov 

avamii&crLv iravre^ iir Ipyov, %aX/c^9, fcepafifj^;^ cr/cv- 

\oShjraif 490 

(TKVT^^, ^a\avfj<;, dXApira/Moifiol, ropvevroXvpaairiBo' 

ot Sk ^aSl^ovtr dTroBitrovre^ vdicrtop. 
ET. ifik TovTO y ipcira. 

XKatvav ydp diroiT^a 6 fio')(07]pd^ ^pvyicov iplcov htd 


€9 Setcdrrjv yap ttotc iraiZaplov KkrfdeU ifireinvov iv 

tedpTC KaOijvSov, Kal irplv Becirvetv toi^<: akXov^ oSro^ 

dp' ya-ev' 495 

xdyd vofilaa^ Spdpov e)(p^povv 'AXifjuovvrdSe^ Kapri 

€^(0 rel'x^ov^ koI XfoiroSvTrj^ iraUt, poirdXtp fie to 



But, ere I could so much as moan, my cloak was slipt, my 
robber flown. 

Fd, Ay, and a kite was ruling then the Hellenes, and 

was king. [As before, 

Cho. The Hellenes? 500 

Fd, Yes; and in his reign it first became the thing 

To drop a reverence to the kites. 

^ifc By Bacchus ! 'twas my fate, 

Spying a kite, to make my bow: then, tossing back my pate, 
Down the red lane my money went, and I was forc'd to drag 
Back to my home, all supperless and sad, an empty bag. 


Fei. So mighty was their sway that if in some Hellenic 
town [As before. 

A king, as Agamemnon or his brother, wore the crown, 

A bird upon their sceptres sat, the many bribes to share. 610 

What strikes me most, the present Zeus a bird, an eagle, wears 

Upon his statue's head, as king: an owl his daughter bears: 

Apollo has a little hawk, as a .mere serving-man. sie 

Eu, Bight, by Demeterl and now what's the reason of 
the plan? 

Feu That, when a sacriflcer puts, according to our use, sis 


Korfw irhnto /leXXto re fioaVf o 8' o/irefiTuiTe Ooifmrvov 

IIEI. iicTlvo<; S' ovv rwv '^Wijvcov ^fyx^v rore Ka^curlXevev. 

[As before. 
XO. T&v 'EW?7i/a)i/; 500 

IIEI. Kol KariSei^iv y ovro^ irp&TO^ ^aaCkevGuv 

irpoKoXivheiadai to?9 IktIvol^* 

ET. vfi TOP ^Lovvaov, iyto yovv 

CKaXivBovfj/rfv IktIvov-ISoov, Kaff xrimof; &v ava'^d<TK(ov 

606\6v KaTe^poy^Bcaa' Kara Kevov top OvKaKov oIkoS 


IIEI. fjpxov S' ofirtt) a'<f>6hpa rrjv dpy^^v, &<tt el tl^ koX 

fiaaOuevoL [As before, 

€v rah iroXeaiv t&v '^DsXrivtov ^ Ayafiifivcov rj lAeveXao^^ 

hrX T&v a-KrjTTTpoDV iKaBryr opvi^ ps,Tk')(wv 2 ri Btopo- 

Botcolf). 510 

o Be Seivorarov y eoTtj/ aTravrtov' 6 Zeif^ yap 6 vvv 

/SadKevayv 514 

derovopvLV ea-rrjKev 6j((ov iirl rrj^ Ke(j>a\fj^ fiaaiXevfiav, 

17 8' ad Ovydrrjp yXxivy^y 6 S' ^ AiroXKoav &anrep 

depdirtov lepaKa, 

ET. 1/77 T-fjv A7}/jLr)Tp' ev ravra Xeyet^;, rlvo^ oTLfveKa ravr 

ap iypvaiv ; 

IIEI. Xv irav 0v(ov rt? enrevr aifTol^i €9 rfjv xetp', oS? vofw^ 

ecrrlvy 518 



The entrails in the hand, these birds may take them before 

No man would then swear by a god, but all men by the birds, 
And Lampon still adjures the goose to back his cheating 

words. — 621 

Once, you see, you were high in place, 
Once a great and a holy race. 
Holy and great by all men deem'd, 
Now as the merest jacks esteem'd. 
If in their temples you now alight. 

They pelt you like any bedlamite: 62b 

And the cunning fowlers for you set 
Snare and springe, twig, trap, gin, cage and net: 
Then they catch and sell you by the score. 
And the buyers feel and pinch you sore: sao 

Till, at last, when comes the sad decree. 
They don't even roast you decently; 
But the grated cheese they first prepare, 
Adding silphium, oil and vinegar. 

And they rub in these with cruel care: 

Then a isauce they heat that's rich and sweet, 686 

And drench you with it^ like dry dog's meat. 


ra anrKay^va SvS^, tov Acd^ ovtol irpSrepoc ra 

S/ijru T ovBel^ TOT av dvBpdnroav OeoVy aXK* opvcOa^ 
airavT&i * 520 

A.ap/rr(ov S' 6fivv<r iri koX vuvl t6v J(^v*, Ztuv 
i^airaTq, ti. 

o{;Tft)9 vfid^ 7rai/T€9 irpoTCpov fieydkov^ ayiov9 t 

vvv S' av fiava^' 

Sairep S' ijBr) Toi>^ fiaivofiivov^ 

fidWova Vfia^ xdv tol^ UpoK, 535 

7ra9 Tt9 €9 VfJLLV O OpVlU€VTrj^ 

t(rTr)<ri I3p6j(pv<;, iraylBa^, pd/SSov^, 

Ip/crj, v€<f>eKa^y Sl/CTva, injiCTd^' 

elTa XalSojrre^ ircoXovtr ddpoov^* 

ot S' dvovmac l3\ifid^ovT€9' 530 

Kov^ ovv, elirep Taxna Soicei Spap, 

omrria'dfievob irapeOevff vfia^, . 

dX)C iiriKvooinv Tvpov, eXaiov, 

a'tk<f>u}v, o^o^y KaTaTpt^avTe^ 

KaTd'^ap! €T€pov y\v/cv /cal XtirapSv, 535 

KairetTa tcaTecKiiaaav Oepp^ov 

TOVTO Kaff vp,&v 

avtov Aairep Keve/SpeCfov. 



Cho. By fcvr^ mcm^ alas I by fwr AwUstrophe, 

These tales of aU moat cruel a/re 
Which to mine ea/ra you bring, 

And from ms tears you vyring 64k> 

For those my cowa/rd sires, who cofuM 
Thus ccMreless of my good 
Abandon mighty privileges 
Sent doum from old amcest/ral ages. 
But, as youWe corns by hea/oen^s decree 
And ha/ppy chamjce a samou/r unto me, 646- 

My nestlings and mysetf I gvue 
In you/r protectorate to live. 
Forthwith then teach us what to do: since life's not worth 

the name, 
Unless by fair means or by foul our kingdom we reclaim. 
Fei, First then I teach that of the birds one city you 
shall found, 66o 

And next that all this atmosphere that circles you around, 
And all the ways that intervene the earth and sky between, 
With huge baked bricks, like Babylon, be walled about by you. 
Fu. O Gog and Magog, what a town ! how terrible to 

view I 

Feu When this has gain'd its perfect height, reclaim from 

Zeus the sway : [Ignorin^g hvm. 

And if he won't knock under straight, but still returns a * Nay,' 

Announce to him a sacred war, and notify the gods 666> 


XO. TToXi) Srj iroXu Si) 'xaXeirayrdrovf; \6yov^ 

rjpeyKa^, av0ptoff>' (09 iScucpvad y ifi&v 540 

'jraripcov /ecucrjv, ot 

rdo'Se Tct^ rcfid^ Trpoyovcov irapaidvrtov 

hr ifiol KariKvaaVy 

av Si fioi Kara halfiova ical rcva awrv^lav 

dyaOrjv fjKei^ ifiol a-torrjp, 545 

dvaOeX^ ycLp iyoj aoi 

rd re vorria Kafiavrov oiKereiiaoD. 

aXV 8 ri ^(pfj Spav, ai> BlBcuTKe irapoiv' a>9 S^v ovfc 

a^iov Vfiiv, 
el p,rj feofiiovfj,€0a iraml rpoirtp t^v i^fieripav PaaCKelav, 
IIEI. KaX hrj Tolvvv irp&ra BiBda-KOD filav opvldtov irSXcv 

elvai, 550 

K&ireLTa rhv dipa irdma KvicX/p ical irav rovrl to 

7r€piT€c^l^€iv fjL€yd\cu9 7r\lv0oi^ oTTTah &<nrep Hafiv- 

ET. cS K,€l3pi6pa teal Jlop^vpUoVy (09 trfiepSaXeov t6 irSXi^fia, 

IIEI. Kaireir fjv tovt iTravearrj/crj, rrjv dpyrjv rhv AC 

dirairelv [Ignormg Iwm, 

/eav fiep firj <f>y firjS* 6^6X170*17 fivj^ €v0i>^ yvaxrifior- 

Xn<nj> 555 

iepov irokefiov TrpcovSav avr^, kciI roiat Oeounv diretirelp 

They must not pass, as heretofore, through your august abodes 
A courting of their Semeles, Alkmenas and the rest: 
Such contraband amours shall now most strictly be supprest. 
To men you'll also send a bird as herald with these words : 
'Henceforth, as birds are reigning, you must sacrifice to birds, 
And to the gods in second rank : whereto must be assigned 
For every god a proper bird, the fittest you can find. 
Aphrodite's sacrifice crumpets for the coot implies; 666 

If a sheep Poseidon gain, wheat-corn let the duck obtain; 
Gomes for Herakles a treat? honey-cakes the gull must eat; 
If king Zeus a ram delight, we've our kingbird, who by right, 

Zeus himself preceding, can claim a slaughter'd gnat from man/ 

Eu, Slaughter'd gnat ! charming that ! let him thunder now, 
great Zan! 67o 

Gho. All the work, where strength is needed, be to us 
While to you shall be committed all requiring mind. 

Hoo. Now, let me tell you, there's no further time 
To nod and shilly-shallyi Kikias-like; 6io 


Sea T^9 X^P^^ '^^^ vfieripa^ firj/cer ipSaiv Bui<t>oiTav, 
&<nrep irpSrepov rct^ ^AXtciiTJva^ koX ra^ Se/xeXa? 


To'k 3' dvOpdiroi^ opvvv Srepov iri/iylrat tajpvKa KeXevo), 
(09 opvldoDv fiaaiXevovToav Bveiv opvcac to Xoiirov, 
Kairevra 6eok i<rr€pov av0c^' irpoavelfiaaOaA he irpe- 

Touri deouTLV t&v opvlOav 09 av dpfiorrrj Kaff eKaarov, 
tjv *Ail>poSlT7j Oijy, ffupov^ SpviOi <l>aXn]piSL Ov^iv' 565 
fjv he HoaeiZ&vl t^9 olv Ovy, vrfrrri irupoif^ KaOaryl^eip, 
fjv S* ^UpaKhAei, OJyai, Xaptp paaToi>^ Oveiv fieXi- 

K&v Atl OvTf fiaaCKel Kputv, fiaaCKeu^ ear opx^^^^o^ 

^ irporiptp hel rov Aid^ avrov aep^ov ivop^rjv 

ET. rj(r07)V <rip(f>q> a^ar)/uii^opAv(p* fipopTdra) vvv 6 fJLeytK 

Zdv, 570 

XO, dXX* iaa phf hel pthp/Q irpdrreiv, iwl ravra rera^ofieff 

iaa hk T^co/Lwy hel fiov\€vecv, evl aol rdhe irdvr 
En. ical iki)v pA TOP Ar oir)(i pvard^eip y Sri 

&pa ^otIp i^pXp ovhk p^Wopuciop, 640 


But something mnst be done forthwith. First enter 
And view my nest, my straws and stock of firewood: 
And let us know your names. 

Fei, An easy matter. 

My name is Feithetairos, and my friend's 
Euelpides of Krio. 6i6 

ffoo. Welcome both. 


Pei, We thank you. 

Hoc, Enter in then. 

Pei, Certainly. 

Pray take and introduce us. 

Hoo, Forward, then. 

Pei, Yet something strikes me : just come back awhile, 
Let's see: please tell us, how will he and I, 
Non-flyers, live on terms with you that flyf 6bo 

Hoc, Pluck up your spirits: there's a certain root, 
Which when you've eaten, youll at once have wings. aes 

Pei, Then let us enter in. Ho, Xanthias 
And Manodoros, take the baggage up. 

Cho. Sir, with you a word or two I 

Hoo. What » 

Cho, Let these men lunch with you 

Bravely: but the musical, most melodious nightingale 


oXV ©9 T&^iora Set ri hpav* irp&rov Si ye 

etaiKder 69 veomav re rrjv ifirjv 

teal rdfict Kapif>'q KaX ra irapovra <f)pvyava, 

KoX ToivofJb rffiiv ^pdcarov, 
IIEI. dWa paSioVm 

i/Mol fjL€P 6vofia TletOeraipo^, rtoSeSl 

TSive\irlBrj<; Kpi&Oev, 645 

En. dXXA y^aiperov 


IIEI. SexofieOa. 

EH. Sevpo rolvvv eXairov. 

IIEI. ttofiev' ela-Tfyov aif Xaficov rifia<;, 
EH. lOt. 

IIEI. drdp TO Selva Sevp* eiravdfcpovaai irdXiv, 

^ip tStOy <f>pdaov v^v, 7r(i39 iyci re 'xpvroal 
^vvea-ofieff ppZv irerofievoi^ ov wero/iiva) ; 650 

EH. fif)Skv (I>ol3r)60^' ioTi yap ri pl^tov, 

8 SiarpaySpr i<re<r6ov iirreptafiivoD, 655 

IIEI. ovreo fih/ euriw/iev. ar/e Si], Sav0la 

KaX "MavoSdope, \afil3dvere rd oTpd/Mara. 

XO. o5ro9, a-e kcCKA, <rk KaX&, 

En. ri Ka\elii\ 

XO. rovrov^ fikp dr/ayv fierd cov vvv 

dplaruTOV eS' rfjv S* 'qSvfieKrj ^{f/KJxavov drjSiva Movaai^ 


Summon f orth, and let her stay here awhile, with us to play, oao 

Fei. Pray, Sir, refuse not: speak a friendly word, 
And from the rushbrake fetch the little bird. 

Eu, Tes, bring her hither: let their suit prevail, 
That we too may behold the nightingale. 

Hoo. If both desire, I must : out, Frokne dear, ess 

And be presented to the strangers here. 

The Nightingale enters from, the huah, 

Fei. Wide-honour'd Zeus ! a charming birdie this. 
And wearing heaps of gold, like some young Miss. 670 

Bu, I want to kiss her. 

Fei. That's a maddish freak : 

She's got a pair of scissors for a beak. 

Uu. But from her noddle I could peel the shell. 
As from an egg, and kiss her very well 

Hoo. Come, let's be moving. e76 

FeL Lead the way, my friend. 

And may good fortune still our steps attend. 

\Exemit Hoopoe, Feithetad/ros, Eudpidea, amd Slivoes. 
[The Coryphaeus chcmte or mtonea the first Fa/rahaaie. 

Oho. my ownie, O my brownie, {Kommciiwn) 

Bird of birds the dearest. 
Voice that mingling with my lays 

Ever was the clearest. 
Playmate of my early days. 

Still to me the nearest. 
Nightingale, thus again 


KaTakei<l> rj/up Bevp* iKficficuraf:, Xva irala-cofiev fi€T 
ixelvrj^, 660 

ELEI. S TovTo fihrroi, vrj AC avrotatv ircOov* 
eKpLpofrov i/c rod ^ovto/mov rovpvlOiov, 

ET« iK^lfiaaov avrov wpo^ 0€(Sp auTtjv, ha 

teal v<o Oeaadfjiea'da Tfjv dr)S6va. 
En, dXX ei hoKel a(f>^v^ ravra 'xprj Spav, 97 Upotcvrj, 665 

iic^aLve KoX aavrijv iiriBeiKw roiv ^ivovp. 

The Nightingale enters Jrom the bush. 

nEL (3 ZeS iro\vTlp/q0* , (09 /ca\6p rovppldiop. 

oaop S' ^€t t6p j(pva6p, wawep irapOevo^, 670 

ET. eyci ^bkp ainrrjp kolp <l>t\r}a'al fiov SoKoi. 
IIEL dXK*, (3 KcueoBaifiop, pdpA^o^ ofieXlo'Koip e^e^. 
ET, aW' &<nrep w6p prj AC diroKey^apra j(prj 

dirb TTJ^ K€<l>a\r}^ ri Xififia Kaff o{;r(o if>CK£lp. 
En. i(Ofi€P. 67s 

IIEL ^7o5 81) en) p^p TV)(dya0^, 

[Exeimt Hoopoe, Feithetairos, EuelpideSy and Slaves. 

[The Coryphaeus cha/nts or inUmes the first Pwrcibasis. 
XO. dS ^/X?7, & ^ovOriy 
(3 ^CkraTOP oppidop 
irdpTtop, ^vppofie t&p ifi&p 
ifipapy ^prpo^ dffBol, 


Do I meet thee, do I greet thee, eso 

Bringing to me thy sweet strain! 

Skilfullest of artists thon 
To soft trillings of the flute 
Vernal melodies to suit, 

Our homily demands thy prelude now. 
[The Nigktmgale plays a flute symphony, 

(Pa/rahasis proper) 
Ho ! ye men dim-lived by nature, closest to the leaves 
in feature, 686 

Feeble beings, clay-create, shadowy tribes inanimate. 
Wingless mortals, in a day, doleful, dreamlike, swept away; 

Note the lessons that we give, we the immortals form'd to 

We the ethereal, the unaged, with undying plans engaged : 
That, when ye have heard aright all our lore of highest 

flight, eoo 

Birds and what their true creation, gods and what their 

All the rivers running through Erebos and Chaos too, 

Ye may cry, well trained by us, * What care we for Prodikos ? ' 

Chaos was and Night of yore in the time all times before, 

And black Erebos beside Tartaros extending wide. 

Earth, Air, Heaven were yet unknown, in huge Erebos alone 


fj\0€<:, '^\0€<;, cS<l>07ff;, 680 

fJSw/ (f)06yyov ifiol (f^epova' 

a\V (S /caXTufioav Kpixova 

av\6v <f>0€yfjuiaiv rjpivol^y • 

dpxov T&v dvaTraiarfov. 

[The Nightingale plays afliUe symphony, 

clye 87) {fyvaiv avBpe^ d/Mavpo^ioc, 0t;Wa>x/ y€V€^ irpoa- 

OflOtOl, 685 

6\ir/oBpave€^f irXaa-fiara irrjXov, aKcoeiSia <f>v\^ d- 

aTTT^i/e? i^fiepioi raXaol fipoTol, dvep€<s el/ceT^vetpot, 
7rp6a")(^6T€ rdv vovv to?9 d0avdTOt^ 'qpZv to?9 alev 

T0t9 aWeploi^, TOiaiv dyrjp(p^, Toi; a(f>0iTa p/rjSofiivota'iv, 
Xv aKOvaavTe^ iravra irap r)p.&v op0&^ irepl t&v 

lierewptovy 690 

^vciv ouovoov ryepealv re 0€£v iroraii&v r ipefiov^ re 

J(doV^ T€ 

elBoTC^ 6p0(S^ trap ifiov, UpoBUtp xXdecv ecTrrjre to 

;^ao9 Tjv Kal vv^ epe^o^ re /juiXav irp&Tov koX rdpTapo^; 

yfj 8' ouS* d'^p ov8* ovpavb^ fjv' ip€J3ov<; S' iv direipoai 



First, our oldest legend sajs, black-wing'd Night a wind-egg 

lays; ees 

Which, as circling seasons move, brings to birth the charmer 

Bright with golden wings behind, semblant to the whirling 

In the vast Tartarean shade him the dull dark Chaos made 
Sire of us: we nestled there till we saw the light of 

Race immortal there was none till Love's sorcery was begun: 
But, when all things mixed in motion, rose the sky, the earth, 

the ocean, 701 

And the blessed gods were made, everlasting, undecay'd. 
Thus of all the blessM we far the oldest claim to be; 
And that we are sons of Love many facts agree to prove : 
Still we fly our daily round, still with lovers we are 

Cruel hearts will oft relent, if a pretty bird is sent; 
And a quail, or goose, or dove, wins th^ victory for Love. 


rUr€L TrpdrioTOV vTrrjvifitov vif^ 17 fie\av6irT€p09 

€p6p, 695 

ef oS TrepireWofiivai^ Spai^ ipKaarev epco^ o irodetvo^, 

o-tCK^odv v&tov TTTcpvyoLV 'xpvo'aivy eiKoo^ dve/Moo/eeo't 

oSto^ 'Xpj&i' riepoemi p>i^ei<i vvy^ltp Kord raprapov 

iveorrrevo'ev 70/09 rjfierepov, xal irp&Tov ainf/ar^ev €9 

trpinepov S* ovk ffv 761/09 dOavdreov, irpXv ipa^ ^we- 
fii^ev &7rairra' 700 

^vfifiiyvvfi4v€ov S' iripcov iripoi^ yiyov ovpav6^ 
toKeavo^ re 

Kcu, yrj irdvrtov re Oe&v fiaxaptav 7^1/09 a<f>0$Tov, SSe 
fi€V ia-fiev 

iroXv Trpea-jSyraroi irdirrayv futKapoDV rjfJLet^. co9 S' 

^oWoZ9 S^Xoj/* TTerofiea'Od re ydp koI rotaw ipSci 

iroWol 8* drvxei^ ovre^ irporepov iv<rirpa/^ovvre^ r 

ev epcori 
elff wv hroOovv Zih rriv laypv rfjv i^fieripav €Kpdrr)aav, 
o fiev oprvya Sov^, o Se irop^vpltov^, o S^ JCfV, 8 8^ 

ireptriKov opvof. 


Of the goods with which they're blest mortals get from birds 

the best. 
Firsts of seasons, winter, spring, summer, we the tokens bring. 
Men must sow, when shrieks the crane seeking Libya's coast 

again; Tio 

That's the time, each captain knows, to hang up the helm and 

Then Orestes must not lack cloak well-woven for his back. 
Lest with cold the robber freeze and another's garment seize. 
Next the kite appears, and brings a new season on his wings, 
When the flock you must release from its vernal load of 

Then the swallow comes to tell time is come the cloak to sell. 
And, for wear while days are hot, buy the slender paletot. 7i5 
We are Ammon's shrine to you, Delphi and Dodona too, 
Phoebus' self : to birds you turn first, whatever you would 

How to choose a mart, a trade, or a marriageable maid. 
The decisive omens all, known in seercraft, birds you call; 
Bird an oracle of fate, bird a sneeze you designate : 720 

Sign that's seen or voice that's heard, lacquey, donkey, 'tis a 



irdvra Sk OvtjtoU ia-rlp cuj) rjfi(Sv r&v opvWoav ra 

irp&ra fiev &pa<; ^alvofiev rjfiel^ ijpo^ )(€tfi<5vo<; oiroopa^. 
aireipeiv fiev, irav yipavof; /cpd^ova €9 rfjp Aifivrjv 

fieTa')(topy' 710 

kclI 7rr)Bd\iov Tore vavicKriptp ^pa^ei tcpefida-avTi 

elra S' ^Opea-rrj 'yXaZvav v<]>alv€iv, Iva fifj piyiSu 

IktIvo^ S' aS fierd ravra (f)av€l^ irepav &pav airo^alvei, 
rjvlKa 'irefcrelv &pa irpoPdTCDV ttokov rjpLvoV elra 

'6t6 'x^pfj j^Katvav TrcoXeiv r}8rj koI XrjSdptov re irpla-' 

affai, 715 

ia/jL€v S* v/MV "AfJLfioDVy AeX^o/, AcoSoSvi], ^oJ)8o9 'A- 

ikdovre^ yap irp&rov eir opvi^ oJJto) Trph^ airavra 

irpo^ T ifJbTToplav, xal irpo^ fiiorov /CTfai,v, kclI irpd^ 

ydfjLov aWo9. 
opviv re vo/il^€T€ Trdvff iaairep irepX fiavrela^ Scatcplvei' 
i^VM'V y ^M'^v ipvi<i iarly irrap/iov r 6pvi0a KoKcLre, 720 
^vfi^okov opvcp, ^(ov^p opviv, OepdirovT opvcv^ ovov 




We're Apollo then, 'tis clear; we're your only Pythian seer. 
So then, if for gods you take us, 
And your trusted muse-seers make us, 
Gentle breezes we will send you; 

Pleasant seasons shall attend you; 

Moderate heat when summer's nearest, 

Moderate cold when winter's drearest : 

We'll not sulk, and sit beclouded 

High in Jove-like grandeur shrouded; 

But, in lower ether gliding, 

Near your mansions still abiding, 

We will give to all your nations. 

Through their latest generations, 790 

Life that's healthy, peace that's wealthy, 

Youth-enhancing feast and dancing. 

And, with laughter, bird's milk after. 

All shall say, * 'Tis really cloying ' : 785 

Such the bliss you'll be enjoying. 

Muse of the woodland gladey {Ode) 

TiOf tio, Ho, tiOf tio, tio, tiottXf 

Harmonist^ whom tending oft 

In glens or on the mountain tops aloft, 740 

Tw, tio, tio, tiotix, 

Perched in cm aeh-tree^a leafy shade, 
Tio, tio, tio, tiotix, 

Through my brown hill to Pom, I raise 

Melodious strains of holy praise, 7i3 

And to the mountain Mother solemn choral lays, 


ap ov ^avepw i^fiec^ vfilv ia-fikv /juavrelo^ 'AttoX- 

fjv ovv tjfid<; vofjLi<77)T€ Beov^y 
ovK airohpavTe^ 
KaOeBovfieO^ avco aefjuvvvofievoc 

oXXet irapovre^ Booaofiev vfuv 

avTol^, iraiaiv, iraihcov Traiaiv, 730 

TrXovOvyieiav, /3iov, elpi^vrjv, 

veoTrjTa, ryeXora, X0/001/9, 6aXla<; 

yaka r opviBcov. ware irapecrraL 

KOiriav vfiiv viro rwv ar^aQSiv* 735 

Moj}<7a \o')(jJLaiay a>iri 

Tv6 TVO no TLO Tld TCO TtOTl^y 

TroiKlXrjy fieff ^9 e^co 

vairaLa-l re Kopv(f)alaiv r iv opeiai^;, 740 

710 TCO T16 Tior/f, 

l^6fi€vo<; fJL€\ia<; iirl (f)vWofc6fiov, 


Sc ifi7)<i 7€i/uo9 ^ov6?}<; fieXimv 

Uavl vofiov^ Upoif<; dva^aiv(o 745 

aefivd T€ fiijTpl j(ppevfiaT opela, 



Whence^ beelike, Phrynichua his soul did fill 

With fruit of melodies ambrosial, still 

Carolling lyrics at his ovm sweet will, 760 

Sirs, if any of your throng to the bird-club will belong, 
We can offer him a home full of bliss for years to coma 
What your laws entitle base, what you visit with disgrace, 7W 
We the birds commend and deem worthy of our high esteem. 
Here by law 'tis very bad if a youngster beats his dad : 
There with us 'tis usual rather, even grand, to cuff a father, 
Strutting up and crying, *Sir, if you'll fight me, lift your spur.' 
Any of you that has been branded for a runaway, 7flo 

As a speckled francolin may with us securely stay. 
Any half-caste Spintharos, with a taint of Phrygian blood, 
In our Birdland will be called Crossbill of Philemon's brood. 
If, like Exekestides, some vile Karian slave comes out, 
Pappies he can fledge with ease there, and wardsmen soon 
will sprout. 7fl5 

To the outlaws would some day Peisias' son the gates betray] 
He, true nestling of his sire, partridge-rank can there acquire: 
Sneaking out we reckon fair, partridge-fashion, from the snare. 

So swans in olden tide, (Antode) 

Tio, tio, tio, tio, tio, tie, tiotix, 77o 


^pvvL'XP<i dfifipoaioDV fieKetov direPoaKero Kapirov del 
^epoDv y\v/C€iav ^Sdv. 750 

T16 no Ti6 TLOTL^, 

el fi€T opvldcov Tt9 vjJb&Vj cS 0€aTal, fiovXerat 
SiairXi/ceLv fcSj/ T^Seo)? to Xolttov, <o<; iQfJLd<s Xrco. 
oaa yap iariv ivOdh^ ala'^pa rat vofitp Kparovfieva, 755 
ravra irdvr ia-rlp irap r\pXv rolatv SpVLtriv /eaXd. 
el ydp ivOdS* iarXv ala'x^pov top irarepa Tvirreiv vofi^, 
TOVT ixei KoKov irap rijuv iariv, yp ta9 t& irarpl 
'irpoa'SpafKOP ecirrj irard^a^;, alpe TrXfJKrpop, el j^ax^l* 
el Sk Txjy^dpei rt? vfiSp BpaTrerrj^; earvyfiepo^, 760 
drToyd^; oSto^ 'Trap* rjpftp ttoikIXo^ KeKKrjaeraL, 
el 8e Tvy^dpec ri^ wp ^pif^ firjBep 'tjttop SirLpOdpov, 
<l>pvyt\o^ opPL^ o5to9 earac, rod ^CKrjfiopo^ yepov<;. 
el Se Sov\6<: e<m koX ¥idp &airep ^^^Kea-rlSij^, 
^vadrto irdinrov^ irap rjfilPy Kol <f>apovPTac ^pa- 

rep&i. 765 

el K 6 TJecaiov irpoZovvai to?9 drifioc^ to? irvXa^ 
fiovXerai, iripSi^ yepiaOay, tov irarph^i peorriov 
©9 Tra/o' i^fiip ovBep ala')(p6p earip eKTrepSixlaat, 

TOldBe KVKPOl, dpT^Si] 

no no nd no n6 no nori^, 770 


Did thevt triUing pinions poise 

And chant ApcUo wiih commingling noise, 

TiOf tiOf tio, tiotix^ 
Perched on a knoll by Hehrus^ side. 

Tie, tioy tio, tiotix, 775 

Came th/rough the airy cloud a cry, 
The dappled vrild-beasts crouching lie, 
And sinks the hilhuyy sea beneath tlie windless sky, 

Olympus echoed to his utmx>st bovmd, 78o 

Amaaemefnt seized the kings, amd far a/round 
Each Grace amd Muse Olympia/n sweWd the sound, 

Tio, tio, tio, tiotix, 

{Antepi/rrhema) [785 

Of all joys and blessings none beats the having feathers on. 
One of you spectators may, wearing wings at any play, 
Get at last a peckish feel, and desire a quiet meal : 
Home he'll fly, just take a snack, then, with belly full, fly 

Isn't it then the best of things to posi^ess a pair of wings? 
In Dieitrephes we And proof enough for any mind : 
Osier wings were aU his claim, yet a captain he became 
By his tribesmen duly voted, thence to higher grade promoted ; 
Now he gives himself grand airs, once the roughest of the 

And the title that he bears, Colonel Horsecock of the Buffs. 



cvfi/it/yn Porjv ofiov 

irrepol^ Kpexovre^ laicypv 'AttoW®, 

Tih no no norl^y 

^X^^ ^(l>€^6fi€V0C Trap* ^^fipov irorafiov, 

nb nd no nori^, 775 

Bui B* aWipcop vi<l>o^ ffKOe jSod' 

irrfj^e Sk ^vXA re iroiicCka Orjpoip, 

Kv/Jbard T ea/Seae vrjvefio^ aWi^p, 


7ra9 S* iveKTvmitr oXv/jltto^' 780 

etXe Bk 0d/jb^o^ ava/cra^' oXvfiindBe^ Bi fieXo^ "Kdpire^ 

"Movaal T iircoXoXv^av. 
no no no norl^. 

ovBev ioT Afieivov ovB^ ^Bcov 17 ^vtraL irrepa. 785 
avrlj^ vfJiSp t£p Oear&p eX n<; rjp viroirrepo^, 
elra iretp&p rol^i j^opourv t&p Tpvy<p8£p fix^^^* 
etciTTopspo^ ap 0VT09 rjplxTTqaep ekOdtp otxaBe, 
kAt ap ifivXfjo'Oel^ i<l>* i^fia<: avdt^ aZ Karhrrero: 
ip viroirrepop yepiaOav irapro^ ianp a^cop; 
©9 AuTp€(lyrj^ 76 irvnpala /lopop €J(G)p Trrepa 
ypedf) ^vXap'Xp^, eW cmrap'xp^, elff ef ovBeph<i 
fieyoKa Trpdrrei xdarl pvpI ^ov0o^ ImrdKe/erpvoip, 

ACT 11. 

Scene : in the Clouds. A haatUj/'Constructed altar stands in the 
centre of the stage. Enter Feithetairos and Euelpides as 

^^' ES^SS^ ^^^ ^^ good. No, never, on my word, 

I never saw a creature more absurd. 
Eu. What are you laughing at? 

Pel Oh, don't you know? 

Those pin-feathers of yours amuse me so. 
Such metamorphosis your wings produce. 
You're very like a cheaply-painted goose. ens 

Eu. You've limn'd my likeness : yours is quite as droll, 
A blackbird stript of feathers round the poll. 

Pei. These likenesses we get — the poet sings — 
Wrought of none other, but by our own wings. 

Cho. What's the next business? 

Pei. We are bound to frame, 

First thing of all, a great and glorious name 
For our new city. Sacrifice is due, sio 

Next, to the powers divine. 

Eu. I think so too. 

Cho, What title for our city shall we choose? 

ACT 11. 

Scene : in the Clouds, A hastily-constructed altar stands in the 
centre of the stage. Enter Peithetairos and Euelpides as 

^^^* B^^^^H'^''^^ ToiavTl' /la AC iyco fiev 'irpay/xd ir(o 

yeXoiorepov ovk elSov ovheTrmnroTe. 
ET. €7rl TO) 7e\a9 ; 
nEI. iirX Tolari aoL<i (OKvirTepoi^. 

olaff ^ fioKiar €oi/ca<: iTTTepcofjuivo^ ; 

eh eureKeiav X'ivX a\rff^pafifJLev(p. 805 

ET. cri) Se Koyltl'xtp ye aKd<f>LOV diroTeTiKixevcp. 
IIEI. ravrl fjukv yKaai^eada Kara top Ataj(y\ov' 

rdS^ ovx vir dWoov dWd roi^i avr&v irrepol^. 
XO. 076 hrj tI xP^ Spdv; 
IIEI. irp&rov ovofia ty iroKei 

deaOai ri fieya xal /cKecvov, elra to?9 0eoi^ 810 

Ovaav fierd tovto, 
ET. Tavra Kafiol avvSoKel. 

XO. ^ep* iBo), ri S' i^fiiv rovvofi ecrav ry irokei\ 

ACT 11. 

PeL That which the folk at Lakedaemon use, 
That big one, Sparta^ would you give iti 

JEu. Fie ! 

Take for my city Sparta 1 No, not I : sis 

The meanest pallet never should receive 
So poor a fitting, while I'd girths to give. 

Pei. What must we call it then? 

£u. From this new home. 

These nebulous altitudes in which we roam, 
Some vaunting title take to suit it pat. 

Pei, Oloudcuckooborough, — ^what d'ye say to that) 

Cho, Bravo ! bravo ! invention's quite your forte ; 
A very noble name and — not too short. 8ao 

JSu. A smartish city this ! But who shall dwell. 
As guardian godhead, in the citadel? 
For whom the broidered mantle? 

Pei. Can't we still 

Let Athenaea keep the sacred hill? 

Eu, A wisely-ordered state can any be, 
mere stands in highest shrine a deity 

Female of sex, who, clad in armour, sees, sao 

With shuttle in his hand, a Kleisthenes? 

Pei, To guard the Storkwall whom shall we engage? 

Cho. A bird of ours of Persian parentage, 
Whose fear-awakening fame resounds afar. 
The gallant chicken of the god of war. 835 

Eu, O my lord Chicken! ay, 'tis chosen well; 
No srod is fitter upon rocks to dwelL 


IIEI. fiovXetrde to /liya tovto rovte AaKehaifiovo^ 

Xiraprrjv ovofia KoX&fieif avn^v; 
ET. 'UpaKXetr 

'ZTrdfyrrjp yap av BeLpifiv eycS Trjii'^ nrokei) 815 

ouS' av xafievvQ iravv j€ Keep lav y e^tov,, 
IIEL t/ BrJT ovofi avry drjaSfieaff* ; 
ET. ivrevdevl 

iic T&v v€<f>e\Sv ical r&v fieredpoDv yjaypUov 

'Xavvov TA irdvv, 
IIEL /3ov\6V ii€(l>€\oKOK/evylav ; 

XO. lod lov* 

KaXov av y dT€)(yS^ koI fiey 7)vp€^ Tovvofjua. 820 
ET. Xcirapdv to XP^f^^ ''^^ 7ro\eft)9. t/? Sal deb^ 

TToXtoS^o? laTac; t^ ^avovfiev t6v irhr\ov\ 
IIEI. Ti S* ovK 'Adrjvaiav ewfiev iroXcdSa; 
ET. Koi TTcS? av en yevocT av evTaKTO^ 9ro\49, 

OTToir 6eb^ yvvrj yeyovvla iravoirXiav 830 

ea-TtjK Sj(pvaa, KXeurOivrj^ Bk KcpxlSa; 
IIEI. 7/9 ' Bal KaOe^cL t^9 7r(JX6a)9 rd HeXapyiKov ; 
XO. 0/91/A9 a^' i^fiSv Tov yevov^ tov irepa-CKov, 

oairep Xiyerai SeivoTaTOf; elvac iravTaxov 
*'Ap€a}<; V€0tt6^. 835 

ET. <S V€OTTk Sia-woTa' 

(»9 S* 6 0€d^ iircTijSeio^ otxelv iirl nrerp&v. 


Pei. Now 70U start off, ascend the upper air, 
And lend a hand to help the masons there: 
Pass on the lime, to mix the mortar strip, 
Carry the hod up, from the ladder slip; sio 

Appoint the watch, the fire still hidden keep, 
Bun round the beat with bell, there fall asleep. 
Despatch one herald to the gods on high, 
To men beneath another from the sky; 
For me returning bid him ask. 845 

Bu. I see; 

You mean to rest here; rest and hang — for me. 

Fei. Go on your mission, friend: without you none 
Of all the things I mention will be done. [Bodt Euelpides. 
Now must we hold a solemn sacrifice 
In honour of the new-made deities; 

And I will fetch a priest to range the show. 849 

Ladsj lift the basket and the ewer. So. [Exit Feithetai/ros. 

Cho. / say so too : I vote with you, Stroplie. 

YeSf cmd add one cownsd d/us: 

To the gods devout profession 

Let us make in grand processio7i, 

And, to win tliei/r favour , bring 

A nice sheep as offering. 855 

Utter forth, utter high 

To the god a Fythia/n cry ; 

And let Chairis to our lay 

FlatUo obligato play. 


IIEI. &y€ wv ax) fiev jSdSi^e 7rpd<; rov dipa 
KoX TouTt TeL')(i^ov(Tt, TrapaStaKovcc, 
j(^dXLKa<i 7rapa(j>6p€i, TrrjXbv diroSv^ opyatrov, 
XeKCLvqv dveveyxe, /cardirea dirb rrj^ /cklfjLaKO<;, 840 
<f>vKaKa<i KardaTTjaai, to irvp eyfcpvirr del, 
K(ohcovo(f>op&v ireplrpex'^ f^oX KaOevS^ e/cet* 
KTjpvKe Be irifi^^ov tov fiev €9 Oeoi^ dvay, 
erepov S' dvaOev ad irap dvOpunrov^ Karco, 
KdKeldev av0c<i Trap ifii, 845 

ET. a-d Si y avrov fiivav 

oifito^e Trap €fi. 

XIEI. W\ &ydff y ol irefiiro) a eyco, 

oifhev yap dvev gov y wv Xiyay ireirpd^eTai, 

[Eocit Euel^nd&8. 
iyco S' Lva 6v<tco toIctl Kaivol(nv Oeohy 
TOV Upea irefi'^^ovTa ttjv Trofnrrjv KaX&, 
iral Trai, to xavovv atpeaOe /cal ttjv ^ipvc/Sa. 850 

[JSocit Peithetairos. 

XO. ofioppoOSf avvBeXcOy 
avfiirapaivecra^ 1;^© 

irpoaohia fieydXa aefivd irpoaUvai Oeoiaiv, 
dfia he irpoaeTL jf^dpcTO^ evexa irpo^dTLov tc Ovetv, 855 
Itco iT(o Se TTvOid^ l3od Bern, 
(TwavXelTO) Be X.alpc^ €^Ba, 


A Fluteplayer^ toearing the mask of a raven with a nunUhpieee, 

enters and hegina to play. 

Enter Feithetairos with a Priest. 

PeL A truce there to your puffing ! Herakles ! 
What creature's this) Will marvels never cease? 
Full many a wondrous sight I've seen, but none 
To match a raven with a mouthpiece on. 
Tour office now begins ; initiate, priest. 
To the new gods our sacrificial feast 

Pr. I'll do the solemn duty, since you ask it: 
But where is he that bears the sacred basket? 

Let us pray to Hestia birdqueen of flame*; and to holy Kite 
that guards the same — 865 

PeL Hail, Simium-worshipp'd Hawk ; hail, royal Stork. 

Pr. and to the Pythian and Delian Swan; and to Lato, 
Mother-quail, and Artemis the Goldfinch — 87o 

Pei, Now no more Kolaenis, she Goldfinch Artemis will be. 

Pr. and to the Bedstart Sabazian, and to the Sparrow, 
mighty Mother of gods and men — 875 

Pei. lady Kybele, be good to us, O Sparrow, Mother 
of Kleokritus. 

Pr. and to Olympian birds and lady-birds all, with united 
prayer we call, that to Cloudcuckooburgesses they grant health 
and wealth and all they want, themselves and their alliance, 
especially the Chians — 

Pei. That's delicious, I . declare : Chians tack'd on every- 
where I 880 


A Fluteplayer, wea/ring the Tinaah of a raven wUh a mouth/piece, 

ervtera and begins to play. 

Enter Peithetairos with a Priest. 
IXEI. iravaai <rv <l>v(roSv, ^UpaxXei^; tovtI ri fjv, 

eirel fici A/' iyco iroWa S^ xal SetV ISo^v 

ovirco Kopaic elBov ifnr€if>opfi€uaiJiAvov, 

iepevy adv epyov, dve rah Kaivoh Oeoh. 
IE. opaaao rdS*, dWa irov ^ariv 6 to Kavovv eyayv ; 

evx^o-Oe Ty ^^aria r^ opvtdeitp koI t^ IktIv^ rm 

€(rTiovxq> 866 

IIEI. (S aovviipaKe %(up dva^ ireXapycKe. 
IE. teal KVKvtp irvOlcp /cal SrjKup koX Atjtoc opTvyo- 

firjTpa Kal ^AprifiiSc dKaXavOiSc, 870 

IIEI. oifKeTL KoXaivU akTC d/ca\av0U *^ApT€fic^. 
IE. Kal ^pvylXtp aa^a^Up Kal arpovdip fi^rfoky firjrpl 

Oe&v Kal dv0p(O7rmv, 875 

IIEI. Biairoiva Kv^cXtj, arpovOe, fiijrep KXeoKpi^ov. 
IE. Kal Spviariv oXv/jL7rioi<: Kal oXvfiTriija'C irdat Kal ird- 

fTyacVy StSovav ^e^eXoKOKKvyieva-tv vyUiav Kal a-w- 

rrjpiav avToiac Kal "Kloiai, 
IIEI. 'Kiouriv rja-6r}v iraina'xpv Trpoa-Kecfiipoi^, 880 


Ft. and to each hero-bird and hero's son, and to pelican 
and porphyrion ; and to heathcock and blackcock, and peacock ; 
and to gannet, and heron, and grosbeak, and shrike, and 
screechowl ; and to blackcap, and titmouse, and earljtnunpet- 
fowl — 
FeL A plague on all this nonsense ! cease to bawl. 
Ho, ho ! what victim's this to which you call soo 

Ospreys and vultures, dolt? a single kite, 
lyje see, could swoop and cany off this mite, 
dear out from us, and take your wreaths away : 
111 make this sacrifice myself to day. \E^ Priest, 

Cho. 80 now agavn a second stram ArUistrophe. 895 

/ mvst raise and not refram.: 

While they hea/r the sacred lotion, 

I must set my songs in motion, 

And to this ov/r solemn rite 

All the hlessM gods invite : 

NOf not all; otic alone. 

If indeed therms meat for one. 900 

In the victim standing by 

Only beard and horns I spy. 
Pel Jjest us pray and sacrifice to the f eather'd deities. 

Enler Poet. 

Po, Of Cloudcuckooborough's city 
Celebrate the happy state, 
O my Muse, in hymnM ditty. «» 

Pei, What importation's thisi say who you are. 


IE. Kal fjpoxrvp opviac xal i^pcooov iraLcl, irop^vpUovi icaX 
ireXe/cavTi Kal TreXe/cti/oo fcal (l>\i^i,Bc xal rirpaKi xal 

KaX eKeq, koX jSaaKa xal iXaa^, xal iptpSi^ xal xarap^ 
pcucTjj 885 

fcal fieXcuyxopii^tp koI alyiOaWtp koI i^piadXinyyif 

IIEI. Trav" €9. /copa/ca^, iravaai, Ka\£v» M iov^ 

iirl iroloVy <S KaKoSaifiov, iepelov kcCKu^ 890 

oKmeTOV^ koX yxhra^) ov^ opa^ Zrt 

Iktivo^ eh civ tovto 7' ot'xpcff apiraa'a^ ; 

airekff cuf>* ijfioiv xal ad koI rci (rTefifiara' 

iyto ycLp avro^ rovroyl OvdoD fiovo^. [Exit Priest. 

XO. elr av0t^ aS rapa aov 895 

hel fie Sevrepop fieXo^ 

'XepvL^L deoaefih itriov iirifioaVy xaXetp Bk 
fidxapa^, Spa ripd fjuopop, etirep iKapdp S^er oy^op. 900 
Tci yap irapopra Ovfiar ovSkp a\\o irX'^p 
yip€c6p T icrrl Kal xipara, 

iITEL 0voPT€^ ev^dfieaOa T049 irreplpoL^ Oeol^. 

Enter Poet. 

no. He^eXoKOKKvyiap rcip evSaifiopa 

KX^trop, & Mofio-a, reah ip Sfipcop doiSal^. 905 

IIEI. tovtI to TTpayfJua iroBaTrop^ elire fjuoi rk el; 



Po, One who honey-voio^d song produces, 
A holy menial of the Muses: 
Such is the title Homer uses. oio 

Pei. A slave are you, yet keep your flowing hair? 

Po. No; but every one that song produces 
Is a holy menial of liie Muses ; 
Such is the title Homer uses. 

Pei Your blouse too's holy ; to your trade you owe it : 915 
But what the mischief brings you here, Sir poet 1 

Fo, Fine odes IVe made and many, tp renown 
In song Cloudcuckooborough, your new town, 
Some Cyclian, others Farthenean, 
Others in style Simonidean. 

JPei. When did you set about this song-inditing? 020 

Po* Long on this city, long have I been writing. 

PeL What? haven't I held its name-feast now, you gaby, 
And called it for the first time, like a baby? 

Po, By the Muses tidings swift are carried; 
Swifter than the glancing force 
Of the lightning-footed horse 

Game the news, and never tarried. ess 

But, O sacred-titled lord, 
Founder and sire of Aetna's state, 
What thy bounty can afford. 
Be it little, be it great. 
With a generous soul incline 
To bestow on mine from thine. 080 

PeL This plaguy wretch will worry us, I see, 


no. iyco fieXtyKdaacov ciricov leh doiSav 

'Movada)V Oepdircov 0Tprjp6<i, 

scard rov ^Ofirjpov, 910 

IIEI. eirena Srjra BovXo^ &v KOfji/rjv e^ee? ; 
no. ovK dXKa irdvTe^ ea-jjbhf oi ZiZdaKcCKot 

TAovadtov Oepdirovre^ orprjpoi, 

Kara rov ^^Op/qpov, 
nEI. OVK irh^ oTprjpiv koX to XrjSdptov ?;^6*9. 915 

drdpy c! TToiiyra, Kara rl Sevp* dv€<f)0dp7f^ ; 
no. fiikrj ireirolr^K €9 rds; ^e^eXpfCOKKuyia^ 

Ta9 vp,€Tepas K^KKid re iroXkd koX KoXd 

KaX irapdeveia koI Kard rd ^cfieovlSov. 
nEI. ravrl av iror i7rocrj(ra<; \ dirb iroaov xpovov; 920 
no, TrdXat iraKai Bfj rrjvK ejto xX/p^o) Troktv. 
nEI. OVK dpTC Ova) TTJv Bexdrrfv Tairrq^ ey©, 

KaX Tovvofi Sxnrep iraiSitp vvv hrj ^Bip^rjv; 
no. dWd Ti<; dKela ^ovadoDv <f>dTi^ 

oldtrep iTTTTODV dp.apvyd, 925 

ad Se irdrep KrUrrop AXrva^, 

^aOecDV lep&v 6fjL(opvp,€^ 

009 €fitp Ti irep 

Tea K€<f)a\a Oekr}^ 

irpo^pcDv B6fjb€V ipXv Tetv, 930 

llEI. tovtI Trapi^ec t6 KaKov rjpftv irpdyfiaTa, 



If we don't shut his mouth up with a fee. 

You've got a jerkin there, come, strip, bestow it 

Upon my very learned friend the poet. [To one of tJie slaves. 

There, poet, take this jerkin for your meed; 

Your shivering plainly shews it what you need. 935 

Fo. Glad the friendly Muse receiveth 
What the gracious donor giveth; 
Yet expand your mental ear, 
And a verse of Pindar hear. 

Fei. We shan't get quit of him just yet, 'tis clear. wo 

Fo. In the nomad Skythian's plain 
Wanders ever, cold and lonely, 
Straton with a jerkin only; 
Jerkin only, 'tis notorious. 
Without tunic is inglorious. 
Duly comprehend the strain. W5 

Fei, You . want the tunic : that I comprehend. 
Come, strip : one must assist a poet friend, [To the alfive. 

There, take it and be off. 

Fo. I go: yet stay, 

The city must receive this parting lay. 
Seated on thy golden throne. 
Muse, prepare a noble ditty 

For the quivering, shivering city. O60 

To the snow-propelling zone. 
The many-path'd, I hied awa', 
Tralalala I 

Fei. But now the tunic's on your back, my friend, 
Of quivering and of shivering there's an end. [Exit Foet, 965 


el fiTj rl 7* avT& iovre; a'n'0(f)€V^ovjj^da, 
ovTO^, a^ fievToi, <nr6\aZa kclI '^^yr&v I;^et9, 

aTToBvOi KOl S^9 TjS TTOirjTy T^ <T0^^, 

\To one of the slaves, 

S^e TTJv a-TToXaBa* irdvTa)<: Be fioc piy&v So/ceJ?. 935 
no. ToBe fikp ovK deKOva-a ^tXxi 

"iAovaa roBe B&pov B€)(€Tai' 

Ttf Bk req, ^pevl fjudOe ircvBdpecov ^iro^. 
IIEL &v6p(OTro^ 7]fi£p ovk d7raXXxij(^6t]a'€TaL 940 

no. vofJbdBea&c yap ip XKv0ai<: 

dXaTac ^rparoDPy 

89 v^apToBoparop earffo^: ov irenrarai" 

aKXerj^ S' eySa airoXas; dpev j^atcSz/o?, 

fi;z/€9 i Tov Xeyo). 945 

nEI. ^vprjx Sti ^ovXei rdp j^croDptaKOP Xa^elp* 

diroBvOc* Bei yap top TroirjT'^p (i<l>€\elp, [To the slave, 

airekOe tovtopI Xa^dp. 
no. diripxofiat, 

Ka^ Ttjp iroXip y iX$a)p iroitja'a) toulBC' 

xX'paop, (3 'xpva60pop€, rap rpofiepdp Kpvepdp, 950 

piipo^oXa ireBla iroXviropd r i]Xvdop' dXaXaL 
nEI. pfj rdp Ar dXX^ rjBr) ir€<f>€vya^ ravrar/l 

rd Kpvepd topBI top 'X^LToyviaricop Xa^dp. 955 

[Eosit Poet. 

ACT 11. 

I can't conceive how to this rascal went 

Such early notice of our settlement. 

Boy, carry round again the laver. So. 

Silence ! 

Ent&r a Soothsayer. 

Soo, Commence not on the goat. 

Pet. Hilloa ! 

What's here? ««) 

Soo, A soothsayer. 

Pel. Bad luck be thine ! 

Soo. Cast not contempt, great Sir, on things divine : 
Here is an oracle of Bakis : see : 
It fits Cloudcuckooborough perfectly. 

Pel, Then, ere I coloniz'd this city, why 
Came you not here, and sang your prophecy? 965 

Soo, The spirit hindered then. 

Pei, Well, well 1 rehearse : 

There's no great harm in listening to your verse. 

Soo. *But when the wolves and hoary crows unite 
To build 'twixt Sikyon and great Korinth's height'-:— 

Pel. And with Korinthians what concern have II 

Soo. This hint of Bakis indicates the sky. 87o 

*Bid first in honour of Pandora bleed 
A white-fleec'd ram: and then, as fitting meed 
For the first prophet who my songs shall bear, 
A goodly coat and sandals new prepare.' 


tovtI fid AC iyd rd KaKov ovheiror ffkina-a, 
o{Jt<» Ta;^€a)9 tovtov irenvaOat rrjv iroXiv. 

€v<f)rjiiia Vtq>. 

Enter a Soothsayer. 
XPH. firj Kardp^u rod rpayov, 

IIEL <rv 8* el ta9 ; 960 

XPH, ia-Ti^; j(prj(rfio\6yo^, 

IIEI. otfjuo^e vvv, 

XPH. c3 SaifiopLCf rd Ocla firj <^at;Xa)9 <^€p6' 

CU9 €<rTi Ba#ceSo9 XPV^f^^ dvriKpv^ \iyav 
€9 rd^ T^€(f>e\oKOKKvyla^. 
HEI. Kaireira ttw 

Tovr ovK i'Xprfa-fioKoyei^ av irplv ijie ttjv ttoKlv 
rrfv^ oltciaai ; 965 

XPH. TO Belov iveiroBc^e fie, 

HEX. aSX ovhkv otSv ear oKovaai t£v iir&v, 
XPH. aXX' irav olKriatoai \vkol iroKuil re KOp&vai, 
iv ravrm to fiera^if KoplpOov xal XiKv£vo^, 
HEX. rl oiv irpoarjKeL hrjr ifiol KopivOloDv; 
XPH. 'Qvl^aff 6 Ba/ct9 tovto .7r/}09 top depa, 970 

irp&Tov HavBdpa dvaai XevKorpi'^a Kpiov* 
09 Be K ifiwv eiretov Skdrj irpdriara 7rpo<j>i]Ti]<;, 
T^ Bofiev Ifidriov KaOapov KaX Katvd weBCKa, 


Pel, They're in it too, the sandals ? 

Soo, * Take the book. 

And, furthermore, the prophecy commands 
'To give a cup, and fill with tripe his hands/ 07o 

Pel. And giving tripe is in it? 

Soo. Take the book. 

*And if thou doest my bidding, reverend Childe, 
An eagle in the clouds shalt thou be styled : 
But if thou giv^st not, never shalt thou prove 
Throstle or woodpecker or turtledove.* 

Pei, And is all this included? gso 

Soo, Take the book. 

Pei, Your oracle is not like this of mine. 
Which I got copied from Apollo's shrine. 
'But when some swindler, uninvited there. 
Disturbs the sacrifice, and tripe would share, 
Let well-belaboured ribs be all his fare.' ws 

Soo, I think you're talking nonsense. 

Pei. Take the book. 

'Nor spare e'en eagle in the clouds, though he 
Or Lampon or great Diopeithes be.' 
Out, vermin, out ! [Beats him, 900 

Soo, Alack and welladay ! 

Pei. Get out, and soothsay somewhere else : away ! 

[Exit Soothsayer. 


IIEI. €V€(TTi Koi ra iriBiKa; 

XPH. Xa^^ t6 Pvpkiov. 

KaX ^caXrjv hovvaCy ttal (rirXdyxPo^v X^v' ^^*' 
irkfjaat, 975 

IIEI. Koi fTifKar^yya Bovu iveari ; 

XPH. XayS^ TO fiifiXlov. 

tcav fiev, decnrie /covp€f iroiy^ ravff cS? eTT^reWft), 
alerd^i iv ve^eKrjo-i, y€V7]a-€ai,' al Be K€ firj Sft>9, 
ovK eaec ov rpvycov, ov \dlo<$, ov BpvKoXairrriQ, 

IIEL KaX ravT evea-r ivravOa] 980 

XPH. \a^e t6 l3ifi\lov. 

HEI. ovBev dp* o/moco^ iaO* 6 XPV^/^^^ rovTtjpi, 
ov iydo irapd .rdnroXKtavo^ i^€ypayfrdfi7)p' 
avrdp iirrjv aKKrjro^ idov av0ptO7ro<i oKa^^wv 
Xwrp Oiovra^ koX .(Ttrkay)(yevei>v iTridvfiyy 
Si] Tore j(prj rvTrreip avrov irXevpoov rd fiera^v, 985 

XPH. ovBev Xiyeiv otjjuii <re> 

HEI. \a^k TO fii^Xiov. 

KaX ^elBov fir}Bhf jJ/qB* aUrov iv i/e^eXiyo-^i/, 
fiTjT fjv AdfiTTCov y fiTjT fjv 6 fiiya^; A^OTre/d^?. 
ovK €t 6vpa^\ 69 Kopaxa^. [Beats him, 990 

XPH. otfioc BeiXat^o^, 

HEI. ovKOVv irepoDae XPV^H'^^yW^''^ iKTpij(a)v; 

[Exit Soothsayer, 

ACT 11. 

ErUer Mbton. 

Me. Vm come to join you — 

PeL Here's another pest. 

What are you come fori what's the ideal thought, 
What the design, the boot, of this your journey 1 

Me, I want to measure geometrically oes 

Your atmosphere, and map it out in acres. 

Pei. And in heaven's name, who are you? 

Me. Meton I, 

To Hellas and Kolonos known. 

Pei. And these, 

What are they? 

Me. Rules for measuring the atmosphere. 

For instance, all the atmosphere in shape looo 

Is like a stove, as near as can be: so 
When I my lineal fix, and from above 
Insert a pair of flexile compasses — 
You comprehend? 

PeL I do not comprehend. 

Me. A straight rule I apply to measure with, 
That so your circle may become quadrangular, loos 

With market-place i' the middle, whither lead 
Straight roads converging to the very centre : 
And thus, as from a star, being circular, 


Enter Meton. 
ME. ' rjKfo Trap Vfia^ 
IIEI. irepop ad tovtI /caxSv, 

ri S' av (TV Spda&v; rk ISia fiovXevfuiTO^ ; 

Tt9 ^ *7rivoia, rk o /c60opvo<; rfj^ 6 Sod; 
ME. y€a)fi€rprJ0-ai, fiovXofiai top dipa 995 

vfuv BieXetv re kotcL yva^. 
IIEI. irpd^ T&v de&v 

<n) 8' el rk dpSpdSp; 
ME. 2(7x^9 etfju; iyd^ Mercop, 

Zp olSep ^EK\d<$ ^(u JS.o\€op6^. 

IIEI. 647r€ flOLy 

ravrl Si aoc ri €<m; 
ME. Kap6p€<: dipo^, 

avrlfca yap drjp iarc rfjp ISiap oXo^ 1000 

/card TTPiyia fidTuara, irpoa-delt; ovp iyw 
TOP KapoPy dpoD 8k TOVTOpl rhp KapnrvKop 
ipOel^ BiafirJT7)P — fiap0dp€i^; 

IIEI. OV /MlP0dpG}, 

ME. 6p0^ fiCTpijaa) xapopi, irpoaTiOek, ipa 

6 kvkXo^ yipT/Tal aoc rerpdycopo^, Kdp fiia^ 1005 
dyopdf ^ipovaat 5* coacp eh avrrjp oSol 
opdal 7r/}09 OiUTO to fiiaop, wairep S' daripo^ 
avTov KVKXorepov^ opto^ opdal irapraxfj 


Straight rays may flasli their light ia all directions. 

Fei. The man's a second Thales. Meton — loio 

Me. Well ? 

FeL I*m your good friend, believe me; take my counsel. 

And move, without disturbance, out o' the way. 

Me. What danger is there? 

Fei. As in Lakedaemon, 

Aliens are banish'd, feelings are excited, 
And many stripes are stirring through the city. 

Me. Is discoixl raging here? 

Fei. No, not at all. lois 

Me. What is the matter then? 

FeL In perfect concord 

We are resolved to kick out every humbug. 

Me. I must be gone then. 

Fei. Yes : I'm not quite siire 

You've time: here are the stripes, impending now. 

[Beats him. 

Me. Me miserable! 

Fei. Didn't I give you warning? 

Kemeasure yourself and be ojff elsewhere. [Bosit Meton. 1020, 

Unter an Inspector* 
Ins. Where are the consuls? 


dxTLve^ diroKdfjLirfoa'iv, 
IIEL avOpfOTTO^ 0aXi79. 

Mircoi/ 10 10 

ME. rl lariv; 

IIEI. taff OTifj <f>iXoi a ey®, 

KcifioX 'TTiBofievo^ viraTTOKiveL t^9 oiov. 
ME. tL 8' iarl Beivov; 
IIEI. &<nrep iv AaKeBal/Movt 

^evrfKareiTav koI KCKivrjinai <f>pip€<$' 

TrXffyal av^al scar currv, 
ME. fi(Sv araaui^ere'y 

IIEL fMct Tov AC ov BfJT. 1015 

ME. dXkd TTcS?; 

IIEI. ofioOvfiaZhv 

airohetv cmavra^ roi)^ oKa^ova^ Bok€i, 
ME. vTTorfoi^fil rap* av. 
IIEI. vrj AC C09 ovK o!8' ap* el 

^Oalrj^ dv' irrlKeimac yap 6771)9 avraiL [Beats him. 
ME. ot/jLoi KaKoBaifjuov, 
IIEL OVK SXeyov iy<o irdKai; 

OVK dvafierpijaei^ aavrov diruov aXKaxyy 1020 

[Sxit Meton. 
Enter an Inspector. 
Em. TTov irpo^evoi', 


Fei, Who's this dainty doni 

Ins. I'm an inspector by the bean elected 
To this Oloudcuckooborough. 

Fei, An inspector? 

Who sent you herel 

Ins. A certain trumpery warrant 

Of Teleas. loes 

Fei. Will you take your salary then, 
Not bore us, but be gone? 

Ins. With all my heart. 

I wish'd to stay at home and sit in parliament : 
Some foreign business I have done with Phamakes. 

Fei. Take it and go then. That's your salary. [Beats him, 
Ins. What's this? loao 

Fei. A sitting of the house on Phamakes. 

Ins. I call you all to witness I am beaten, 

I, an inspector. 

FeL Shoo ! shoo I won't you scud, 

And take your brace of ballot-boxes with you 1 [Eacit Inspector, 

Now is not this a scandal? To our city 

Already they are sending out inspectors 

Before our sacrifices are performed. 

Unter a Plebiscite-vendor. 
Fie. * If any Cloudcuckooburgess wrong an Athenian — ' 1035 


TIE I. rk 6 XapBavaTraWo^ ovTO<rl; 

EIIL iirUrKoiro^ ^kod Bevpo t& Kvdfitp Xa^^v 

€9 ras ii€<j>€\oKOKKvyia^, 
IIEI. iirla-KOTTO^ ; 

hreii'>^e 8e rk ae Bevpo ; 
EIII. ^avKov ^ipklov 

TeXeoi; rv. 1025 

IIEI. /3ov\€i S^Ta TOP fivaObv Xafidv 

fjbrj irpdryfiaT S'^eiv aW* aTrUpac', 

EIII. V7J TOV^ 0€OVi. 

iKK\r}a'id<rac yovv iSeofJirjv oIkol fiivcov, 
ioTLv yap a Si ifiov TreirpaKrai ^^apvaxij, 
IIEI. aTTcOt Xa^coV earip 8' 6 fiurdh^ ovroaL 

[Beats him. 
Em. tovtX ri rjv\ 1030 

IIEI. * iKK\f}(TLa irepl ^appaxov, 

EIII. /jLapTvpofAai TV7rT6/i€PO<$ OOP iiria-Koiro^, 
IIEI. ovic aTToao^ijaet^ ; ovk dirolaet,^ t(o tcdSo); 

[Exit Inspector, 
ov Seipdi KoX TrifiTrovaiP 17817 ^irtaKoirov^ 
€9 TTjp iroXipf irplp KaX reOiiaOai toU 0€oh; 

Enter a Plebiscite-vendor. 
"^H, iap S' iJ€<]>€\oKOfCKi/yiev^ rdp ^AOrjpalop dSi/c^ 1035 


FeL What plague again is here 1 what manuscript 7 

Pie, Vendor of plebiscites am I;, new laws 
I'm come amongst you here to selL 

FeL Sell what I 

Fie. * For Cloudcuckooburgesses we decree that all the 
measures and weights shall be the same as those of Poland.' loio 

Fei, Yours soon shall be the same as those of Woland. 

[Beats him. 

Fie, Sir, what do you meant 

Fei, Go, take away your laws, 

m sharpen them for you to-day, those laws. 1045 

\_Exit Flebiscite-vendor, 

Ins, [/ram the eide^ I summon Peithetairos for assault^ 
to appear at the April sessions without default. 

FeL Oh, really, you*re amongst us, are you, stilll 

Fie. [from the side"], ' If any shall drive out the magistrates, 
and not receive them, as the column states — * 1050 

FeL O cruel fate ! and you're amongst us still ] 

Ina, [from the 8ide\, I'll ruin you in damages, I will. 
I'll lay them at ten thousand drachmas. Sir. 

FeL I'll scatter to the winds your ballot-boxes. 

Ina, [from the eide^. Your insult to the column once at even, 
Remember that. 

FeL Faugh, faugh ! let some one seize him. 


Oh, you won't tarry, won't you?-r-From this place 1055 

Let us as soon as possible go in 

And sacrifice unto the gods the goat. [Exeunt all but Chorus. 


UEI. tojjtI tL iarhv av kukov; tI to ^tffXiov; 
"^H. yp^(f>t<TfiaT07rci\i]^ el/il Kal vofiov^ viov^ 

f)K<o iriLp VfJLoi^ Sevpo ir(o\ria(ov, 
HEI. TO rl\ 

"^H. ')(pfja0aL N€<f>€\oKOKKvyi,d^ rot^ avrot^ fiirpoiai, Kal 1040 

aTa6fi*oi<ri, Koi vofila-fiaa-i Kadairep 'OXo<^v^tot. 
n£I. a\> Si y olo'irep wrorv^iot XPV^^^ T^xa. [B^cUs him. 

IIEI. ov/c airoLo'ei^ rov^ pofiov^; 

iriKpoi^ iyd aoi rijfiepov hel^cD v6fiov^. 1045 

l^Exit Flebi8cU&-vendor, 

EUL KuT^vfiac TJeiOiracpop vfipew^ i^ top iiovpvxi'&va, 

[From the aide. 

IIEI. SKriOe^y oSto^ ; Sti, ydp ipTavff" rjaOa aii ; 

SP^H. idv Se Tt9 i^eXavvp 701)9 ap')(OPTa^ koX fir) Be^VTat 1050 

tcara ttjp o-TiJXiyj/, [From the side, 

IIEI. otfioi KafcoSalfKOPy xal av yap ipTavff fjaff* 8ti; 

EIII. aTToXcS <7€ Kal yp(v^(o ae fivpla^ hpa'Vfia^, 

\From, the side. 

IIEI. €70^ ik aov y€ tc^ KciSa) BtacKeSco, 

EIII. pAfipr^a St€ TTJ^ &TrjXri^ KaTertXa^ iawipa^; 

[From the side, 

IIEI. ai^oV \al3iT(o T19 avTOP, o5to9, ov fiepei^; 1055 

diri(o/i€P rjfieh q59 to%40"t' ipT€v0€pl 

0vaopT€^ etaa) toU deolai top Tpdryop, 

[Eoceunt aU hut Chorua, 



Oho. Through the coming ages now 

With the sacrifice and vow 

Mortals shaU to me be praying, 

Me the allseeing a/nd allstoaying, loeo 

Me whose active sight extends 

To the ea/rth*s extremest ends. 

I preserve the blooming fruity 

Slaying every noxious brute: 

Sv>ch as with rapacious ja/vo 

Under ground the rootlets gnaw ; loes 

Sv^h asy lu/rking in the boughs, 

On the budding fruitage browze ; 

I destroy the loathsome swarm 

That unth fotd pollution harm 

All the ga/rderCs fragramit cha/rm : 

Biting creatures, creatures crawling^ 

Bleed beneath my pinions sprawling. 1070 

Specially, however, it is notified to-day, 
Melian Diagoras if any of you slay, 
Your reward's a talent; and a talent for the head 
Shall be paid of any of the tyrants that are dead. 107& 

Also we do thus declare our high and mighty will : — 
Sparrower Philokrates if any of you kill. 
You will get a talent; if alive he's taken, four; 
For he strings and sells the finches at a groat a score, 
Blows the fieldfares out and shews 'em with insulting grin, loeo 
To the nozzles of the blackbirds sticks the feathers in ; 


XO. ijSrj ^fiol T^ iravT&rrra ©Si} 

Kol Travrdp'x^a 0V7fTol iravre^ 

Bvaovcr evKTaiai^ ev'Xjou^, 1060 

ira/rav fiev ydp yap oTrreva), 
ad^o) 8' evOoKel^ fcapirov^ 
KTeivcov 7rafi(l>v\a)v yevvav 
0f)p<Sv, %a iravT iv yaia 

ix KoKvKo^ av^avofievov yh/vai irap,^dyov^ 1065 

SivSpeai r i(f>€^6fieva Kapirov dirofioaKerai' 
KTelvca 8' ot icrjirov^ euooSei^ 
^OelpovaLV Xvfiai^ ij^dio'Tac^, 
kpTrerd re koX Edxera irdvff oaairep 
ear IV vir* ifia^ irrepvyo^ iv ^ovat^ oWvrai, 1070 

ryhe fjuh/TOC drjfiepa fioKvaT iTravcuyopeverac, 
fjv diroKTclvy TA9 vfMoov Acfvyopav rdv Mi^XioVy 
XafMJSdveifV rdXavTov, rjv re r&v rvpdvvayv rk riva 
Ti3v TeOvrjKOTtov diroKTeivri, rdXavrov Xafifidveiv, 1075 
/SovkSfMeaOd vw dveiTretv ravrd x^y/Aet? ivOaSi' 
rjv diroKTelvQ re? vfimv ^iXoKpdri] rhv ^TpovOtov, 
Xi^eraL rdXavrov, fjv Sk ^dv ta9 drydyrj, rerrapa, 
Srt avvelpcov T0i)9 (tttIvov^ TrcoXel Kaff hrrd rov/SoXov, 
elra <I)V<t<Sv rd^ Kij(Xa>^ SeUvva-t xal Xvfiaiverai, 1080 
Tot9 T€ KO'^i)(pi,aiv €9 rd^ plva^ ^X^^ '^^ irrepdy 



Piseons tHat he catches in his cashes all are set, 

^d must be decoy-birds for him fastened in i net 

Thus do we proclaim. And if by any of you men 

Birds are kept in aviaries, let them loose again. loss 

Our police shall seize you, if this warning you defy, 

And in penal servitude decoying men you'll lie. 

Ho/ppy a/re the feathered folk, 

Who in winter wea/r no doak; looo 

Arid the summer does not hwm ua 
With its hot fa/r-flashing fv/mace : 
BtU in flowery meads I dweU, 
Lingering oft in leafy dell, 

When the inspired dcala^s gladness, 1006 

Swelling into sv/nny madness, 
FiUelfh aU the fervid noon 
With its shrill a/nd ceaseless Pu/ne, 
3ui; throiighout the wintry day 
In some hollow cave I stay 
With the mxiuntain nym/phs aJb pla/y» 
Myrtle-berries, spring-hedeu^d. 
White and tender, a/re my food. 
And a thousand delica>cies 
From the gardens of the Graces. 1100 


On the victory I wish a word or two to say. 
How the judges all will gain by voting for our play, 
Getting better gifts than those of Paris far away. uo4 

First — for more than anything each judge has this at heart — 


KaTravarfKci^et ircCKeieLV SeSe/ieva^ iv Sc/crvtp. 
Tavra fiovkofiea-B* avetiretv' xet ri^ ipvi0a<; rpi^ei 
eSpyfUvovf; Vfi&v iv av\^, <l>pd^ofi€v fieOUvai, 1085 
tjv Be fifj iriOyade, avKXri^dhne^ viro r&v 6pve<ov 
avOi^ vfiec^ av trap fipHv SeSe/jLevoi TraXeva-ere. 
evSaifiov <f>v\ov irrqv&v dvrtpSi] 

oioDVoSVj ot ')(€LflWVO^ fiev 

j^Kalva^ ovK dfiina'xyovvTaL' 1090 

otJS' ai OepiMTj TTvlyov^ rjfid^ 
clktI^ TfjXatjyTj^ Bakirei,' 
aK)C dvdrip&v XeifidvcDV 
ff>vWa)v KoKiroL^ ivvaUo, 

rjvl/i av 6 0€(nr4(rio^ o^v fii\o<; d^ira^ 1095 

OdXireci fiea-TjfJLlSpivoif: rjXiOfiavri^ ffoaJ 
j(€ijJLd^o) S^ iv KoiKoK avrpov^ 
vvfi^ai^ ovpeiai^ ^vp,iraL^(ov* 
rjpufd re ^oaK6fi€0a irapOivia 

Xev/coTpo^a fivpra Hapircov re serprei/JUiTa. iioo 

T0i9 Kpyrak ehrelv ri fiov\6/i€<r0a t^9 vi/crf^ iript, 
ia dr/dff'f fjv Kplvtoaiv '^fia^, irdaiv avroU SdaofMcv, 
&aTe Kpelrrto Z&pa ttoXX^ t&v ^AXe^dvSpov Xafieiv. 
irpwra fjbkv ydp ov /idXiara 7rd<; Kpirij^ i^iercu, 1T05 


Never shall the Lauriotic owls from you depart, 
But shall in your houses dwell, and in your purses too 
Nestle close, and hatch a brood of little coins for you. 
Furthermore we'll bid you live in temples like the gods, 
Eagle-fashion'd pinnacles adorning your abodes. iiio 

If, in some poor office placed, to pilfering you incline, 
We will lend a small sharp hawk to favour your design; 
Craws too we will send you when you're going out to dine. 
But if you reject us, then let each a little shed 
Forge, like lunes o'er statues, as a shelter for his head; 1116 
Lest, without it when you walk in clean and white attire. 
All the birds their vengeance take by covering you with mire. 

Enter Peithetairos. 
Pei, Our sacrifices. Birds, are favourable: 
But from the works no messenger arrives 
To tell us how the business there goes on. 1120 

Nay, here comes one at last, and running too 
And panting in the true Alphean style. 

Enter First Messenger. 
Fi/rst M, Where, where is — ^where, where, where is — ^where 
is he, 
The archon Peithetairos? 

Pel. He is here. 

First M. Your wall is finished. 


y\avtc€^ vfia<i ovttot er^cKetyftova'c Xavptcorixal' 
dW* ivovKijaovciv SpSoVj & re to?9 /SaWaprloi^ 
ipveorreva'ova'i icaickk^ov<ri fiiKpa Kep/jbara, 
elra irp6^ rovrouriv &<nrep iv iepol^ ol/crjaere' 
Ta9 ydp vfimv oixla^ ipi^Jrofiev 7r/oo9 aerov' mo 

Kav 7<xi')(ome^ ap'^licov elff apirda-aL fiovXTjcOe ti, 
o^v UpaKUrKov €9 to/; xeJpa? vfilv Sda-ofiev, 
fjv Si TTOV Secrrvfjre, irprfyopwva^ vfitv irifiylrofiep. 
fjv Bk fiTj Kplvi]T€y )(a\/c€V€aff€ /i7)vla'Kov<: <f>opelv 
&(r7r€p dv8pidvT€^' co? vfidov 09 dv p/fj p,rjv* ^XV* '^'5 
irav ijfffire j^KavlSa XevKi^v, rore p,dXv<rff oiro) Slxrfv 
Sdceff* rjpZv, irdcri toi<; opvuri KararcXoofMevoc, 

UrUer Peithetaibos. 

IIEI. rd fikv Up rjpZv ioTCv, oSppiOe^, KoKd' 

a\X' ov/c dird rov Tel^ov^ irdpeariv 0775X09 

ovSeh Ztov irevaop^eOa rdKel irpdypura. iiao 

oXX' ovToal rp^x^^ ''"*? 'AX^e^oi/ irvitov. 

BrUer First Messenger. 

AP. A TToO irov ^arrif ttov irov irov Vta, irov irov irov ^art ttov 

wov HecOeraipof: iariv ipytov] 
IIEI, ovToaL 

AP. A i^tpKoSSfiTfral aoi to T6Jj^09. 


Pei, Thanks for jour good tidings. 

First M, A yerj noble and magnificent struotare. iias 

So vast the breadth is, that upon the top 
Proxenides of Bragham and Theogenes 
Gould drive two passing chariots dear, with steeds 
Big as the wooden one of old. 

Pei. Great Herakles! 

First M. The height (I measured it myself) is just iiao 
A hundred fathoms. 

Pei What a height, Poseidon! 

Who built it up to such enormous size) 

First M. Birds and none else: no bricklayer of Aegypt, 
No stonehewer was there, no carpenter : 

With their own hands they did it, to my marvel iiss 

There came from Libya thirty thousand cranes, 
All having swallowed down foundation stones, 
Which with their beaks the rails stiU aptly shaped: 
Another party of ten thousand storks 
Were brickmakers: and water from below 
The plovers and the other wading birds 
Were raising up into the higher air. ii4o 

Pei. And who conveyed the mortar for them) 

First M. Herons, 

In hods. 

Pei. And how did they get in the mortar) 


IIEI. €v TJyei^. 

Ar.A KaXXioTOv epyov koI fieyaXryirpeTriaTarov' ii«5 

&aT &v hrav(o fikv Tlpo^evlSr}^ 6 Kofiircta-eO^ 
teal 0607^1^9 ivavrUo Sv ipfiare, 
twTTtov virSvrtov fiiyeOo^ iaov 6 Sovpio^, 
iirh Tov irXdrov^ av frapeKcurairriv. 

IIEI. "UpaKkeb^. 

Ar.A t6 Sk fi^ico^ ioTi, /cat yctp ifiirpija aiir iyoiy 1130 

IIEI. (2 Tl6<T€i,Sov, TOV fidicpov^. 

rlve^ ^tcoBofiTja-ap avro rrjkitcovTovl'y 

AF. A ipvtOe^, ovBeh oKXo^, ovtc alrfvimo^ 

irKivOo^po^^ ov \i0ovpy6^, ov Tixrav '/rapvjv, 

dKK' avT6j(€ip€^f &aT€ OavpA^eiv i/i^i, 1135 

iK fUv ye At/3iiri^ fJKov m rpia-fivpuii 

yipavoi OefieXlov^ KaTaireiroDKviai \l0pv^. 

TOtiTov^ S* irvKC^ov al Kpixe^ T0Z9 pdfi<f>e<Tiv, 

irepoL S* hrXiiifdo'upyow ireXapyol fiiipioi' 

iStop B* i^povv KartoOev i^ tov aipa 1140 

0/ X'^^P^^P^^^ ^^^ rJEWa iroTafiC opvea. 

IIEI. i7rf)Xo<f>6povv 8' avrotat Tlve^; 

AF. A ipqtSiol 


IIEI, Tdv Be 7nfX6v ive/SaXXouTO ttcS?; 

ACT 11. 

First M, That was the cleverest device of all, Sir. 
The geese with their web-feet, as though with spades, ii46 

Dipp'd down, and laid it neatly on the hods. 

Pei. What feat indeed may not be wrought by feet? 

First M, Ay, and the ducks, by Jove, all tightly girt. 
Kept carrying bricks, and o«&er Urds were flying 
With trowel on their heads, to lay the bricks.,, iieo 

And then, like children sucking loUipops, 
The swallows minced the mortar in their mouths. 

Pei, Why should one hire paid labourers any morel 
Well now, what next? who were the birds that wrought 
The woodwork of the fort? 

First M, Skilled carpenters, 

The yellow-hammers: with their hammering beaks ii65 

They finished off the gates : the noise they made 

In hammering was exactly like a shipyard. 

The fortress has its portals firmly fitted. 

Supplied with bolts and bars, and guarded round : 

The beats are paced : the bell is borne : the watch iieo 

At every point established, and the beacons 

Set on the towers. — But I must run away 

And clean myself. Look you. Sir, to the rest. 

[Exit First Messenger. 
Cho. Sir, what's the matter with you? do you marvel 


AF.A TOVTf mycuff*, i^vprfro kol aoffxoTara* 

ol XV^^^ VTroriirrovref; Strrrep rai^ cifiai^ 1145 

i^ ra^ Xefcdva^ ivifiaWov avrolv rolv ttoSoZv. 

IIEI. ri Sfjra 7r<J8€9 av ovk &v ipyaaaiaro; 

AF.A Kal vrj AC ai vrJTraL ye irepie^axr/uiivaL 
iifKivOo^opovV avG) Sk tov virar^tayka 
iTrirovT expva-aL /caroinp .... 1150 

&<nrep TratSla 

rdv irrjkbv ev to?9 (rrofiaa-Lv al ;^€\*8ox'e9. 

IIEI. rl Srjra fita-OdOTov^ &v en fnaOotro rc^; 

<l>ip* fSft), tI Sal; ret ^v\iva tov relypv^ rlve^ 
direipyda'avT ; 

AF.A Spvi0€^ l^a-av riicTove^ 

co^dyraroi, ireXe/cavre^y ot to*? p(ifi(l>€a'iv 1155 

d7rerr€\i/ci](rav rd^ irvXa^' fjv 8* o KTinro<; 
avrSv ireKeKtavTfov &airep iv vavirrfyitp, 
teal vvv airavT ixetva irerrvktOTai irifXat^ 
teal jSefiaXdvcDTat Kal (fivkarrerai, icvKT^xpy 
i<l>o8eti€Tai, tc(oSci)vo(l>opetTai, iravray^ 1160 

^vKaKoX tca6e<m]Ka<rt teal <l>pvtcT€Dplac 
iv rotari irripyot^, aW* €7® fikv dirorpexpav 
dm-oviylrofiat' ai S' avrb^ ffhrj raXKa hpcL 

[Exit Fi/rat Messenger. 

XO. o5to9 tI TTOfe??; dpa davfid^ei^ Srt 


Ihe^ fertaPMi hem heea, fbuh'd wit& aaudi afeed? 

^eL Aj, l^ tibe godft: a wondraiiB work it i 
In -very tmch k looka u> me like fictkxi. 
BfBt wait a uomeai: Wie'a & mpwyngBTy 
Oo^ ol iii(6 goAviift from ib^sag^ wiio'a naming to 
Witk ifwe aa maotiai as a i^rxiiieiMiaiiia^ 

tkemdM. WlMtbo! wliatlio: wiwiiio: wk^kol wkmikDr 

On« of tbMe gods from Zeaa^* ^hiee just 
Fkfw ikanmf^ oar pstem into the mtiDOBSfhen^ 
All ttuckmrred of c«r daj-acoiitBy the jajs. 

/InL O ihamcfol deed and imendmrnMe ! 
WinA of the godsY 

Seecmd M. We know not Wings it had. 

We know. 

Pei^ Tonr eoone then, smelj, was to humcfa 
Borne jeomanry upon its teack. 

Secmd M. We did : 

Our moimted arehera, thirty thousand hawks. 
We «en(, all riding with their chiws acrook, uao 

Falcon and hazzardf mltiire, ni^tjar, eagle: 
Harkf with the rush and whirring of their wings 


otrcd t6 t€?%09 iKT€TeL')(jLaTai, ra'xy'y 1165 

IIEI. vrj T0i)9 deoi<i ^(oye' koX yap d^iov 

lea yap ^\rj0£^ ^aLveraL fioc ylrevBeaiv. 
dXX iSe ^v\a^ yctp rtSv i/eeWev AyyeXo^ 
iadel irpo^ rjfia^ Sevpo iryppiyriv fiXiircov. 

Enter Second Messeisger. 

AF. B M>i) lov, loxj lov, lov iov. 11 70 

IIEI. tL rh irpS^fjLa rovri; 

Ar. B Beivdrara ireTTOvdafiev. 

t£p yap de&v ris aprc rSv irapa rov A^cJ? 

Bta Toiv irvkcop eiaeiner €9 tov dipa, 

\a0(0v KoXoioi}^ ^vKaKa^ 'qfiepoaKOirov^, 
IIEI. (S Seivdv epyov ical ay^^rKiov elpyaafievo^, 1175 

Tt9 rSv 0€(Sp; 
AT, B ovK lafiev' iri S' eZ;p^€ wrepd, 

TOVT la-flfCV. 

IIEI. ovKovv Srjra nrepLirokovi ixPV^ 

'irifiylrai xar avrbv €v0v^; 
AF. B a\\' iwi/jbyltafiev 

Tpia/wplov^ lepaxa^ i7i"7roTofoTa9, 

^G)p€l Bk ira^ T49 ivxrxa^ i^y/cvkcofiivo^, 1180 

pvfiri T€ /cal irrepolo'L Kal pov^rjfiaaLv 


All ether shadders, as they seek the god. 

Far off it cannot be : indeed I think 

'Tis here already. ii85 

Fei. Must we not get slings 

And bows and arrows? Henchmen all, look out: 

Shoot, smite : supply me, some one, with a sling. 

[JSxit Peiihetavroa wUh Second Messenger, 
Cho. Wcbr is rising, wo/r surprismg, Strophe. 

Wcur between the gods and me; 

So let every wcttchhi/rd see iioo 

Th(U this, the child of Ere^os, 
Owr cUmd-enci/rded atmosphere, 
Be gua/tded stricth/, fa/r and nea/r. 

Lest any god should pass unseen of vs. 1195 

Look out, look out, each ca/reftd scottt, a/rownd, about, 
Soms daemjovbS whirling through the lofty sky : 
IPen now the winged sound approaches nigh. 

Iris appears flying across the scene. 
Peithetairos re-entervng. 

Pei. Ho, madam, whither, whither, whither flying? 
Stay quiet there; be still; restrain your course. laoo 

Who and what are you? Whence arrived? declare. 

Iris. I'm from the realm of the Olympian gods. 

Pd. And what are we to call you? bark or bonnet? 

Iris. Swift Iris, 

Pei. Faralus or Salaminia? 


aiO'^p SovetTai rod Oeov ^rjTovfJLivov 
Kdar ov fiaKpdv diraydev, aW' ivravOd irov 
rihvi ^ariv. 1185 

IIEI. ovKovv a^eviova^ hel Xafil3dv€tv 

Kol r6^a' %cop€t Sevpo 7ra9 virrjpirrj^' 
To^eve, irale, a'<f>€vS6vr)v rk p*oi Sotod. 

[Exit FeUhetairaa with Second Messenger, 
XO. irokefio^ atperaVy iroKefJbo^; ov ^ard^ 

7rp6^ ifie xal Oeov^. dXXd ipyXarre ird^ 1190 

depa TrepLvi^ekov, ov SpelSo^ iri/cero, 

firj ae XdOy Oe&v T49 tcuOtq irepoSv' 1195 

iOpei, 8k 7ra9 KVKKtp o-kottoop, 

C$9 iyyi^^ ijSrf Salfiovo^ ireSapalov 

8/1/179 irrepoyrd^ <f>06rfyo^ i^aKoverai. 

Iris appea/rs Jlymg across the scene. 
Peithetaibos re-enteriri^i, 

nEI. airri <n) ttoJ; irol irol Trirei; fiiv iiavj(p^, 

ejf* drpifia^;' avrov GrffG*' i7rla-')(€fs rov Spofiov. 1200 
rk el', TToSaTnJ; \eyeiv €')(prjv onrodev ir6T el. 

IPIS irapd T&v 0eoSv Sycoye r&v oXvfiirUov. 

IIEI. ovofJM Si aov ri iari; irXoiov ^ kvv^; 

IPIS *I/3t9 raxeia. 

IIEI. 7ra/}a\o9 fj oaXafivvla; 


Iris. What means this) 120B 

PeL Won't some buziard soar and seize herl 

Iris, Seize me) What mischief's here) 

Pei. Well make you smart. 

Iris, All this is monstrous folly. 

Pei. By what gate 
Oame you within the fort, you shameless jade) 

7m. I have no notion, really, by what gate. uio 

Pei. You hear how she prevaricates. Did you 
Appear before the jay-chiefs) Won't you answer) 
Have you a passport from the storks) 

Iris. What stuff's this) 

Pei, You've got none) 

Iris. Are you sane) 

Pei. Did no bird-oaptaiu 

Attend and set a label on your person) 12U 

Iria. None set a label on my person, wretch. 

Pei. And would you with such silent secrecy 
Fly through a foreign city and through Ohaos) 

Iris. And by what other road are gods to fly) 

Pei. I have no notion, really; not by this. 1220 

You're guilty, let me tell you: long ere now 


IPIS ri Bk rovTo] 1205 

IIEL ravTTfvl Tt,<: ov avWijy^eTac 

avoTTTOfievo^ rpiop'xp^ ; 
I PIS €fik a-yXKYfy^eraL) 

tI iror ea-rl tovtX rd tcaKov; 
IIEI. olfioi^ei fuiKpa. 

I PIS droirov ye tox/tI irpay/ia^ 
IIEI. Kara irola^ iriXa^ 

elirrjXOe^ i^ to T€L)(p^, w fiiapaTdrrf ; 
IPIS ovK otSa fid AC iyoyy€ Kard irola^ irvXa^. 12 10 

IIEI. fJKOva-a<: avrfj^; olov elpcoveverai; 

7r/309 Toi)? Ko\otdpj(pv^ irpooTJXOe^; ov Xiyet,^; 

a^paylh^ 6;^€t9 irapd t&v ireKapy&v^ 
IPI2 rl TO Ka/covi 

IIEL ov/c i\a/3e^; 
IPIS vyuiivei^ fiiv; 

IIEL ovSk av/ii/3o\op 

iirefiaXev opvi6apj(p^ ovhei^ aot irapoiv; 12 15 

IPIS fid Ar OVK Ifioty iire^aXev ovSek, c3 fiiXe* 
IIEL Konrei/ra SljO' oZt<o aitoiry SiaweTec 

Bid T^9 iroXeo)^ T179 dXKoTpia^ koX tov ^aoi;?; 
IPiS iroCa ydp aXK'p j(p^ irereaBai Toi>^ 6eov^\ 
IIEL OVK olBa fid AC eytoye' TyBe fikv ydp ov. 1220 

dBiKct^ B4, KoX vvv dpd y oUrOa tovB* oti 


You ought to have been seized and put to death, 


No Iris in the world with greater justice, 
If you'd got your deserts. 

Iris, But I'm immortaL 

Pei, You should have died in spite of that. Our case 
Will be a cruel one, methinks, if, whilst 1225 

We're ruling all the rest, you gods alone 
Take every kind of license, not yet knowing 
That you in your turn must obey your betters. 
But tell me, whither do you steer your wings? 

Iris. What, I? I'm flying on my father's errand, 1230 

To bid men offer to the Olympian gods. 
And on their bullock-sacriflcing hearths 
To slaughter sheep, and fill the streets with savour. 

Pel, What's this you're saying? Offer to what gods? 

Iris, What gods? to us, the gods that are in heaven. 

Pel, Are you then gods? 1235 

Iris, What other gods exist? 

Pei, Birds unto men are gods : to them must men 
Now sacrifice, and not, by Jove, to Jove. 

Iris, O fool, fool ! anger not the hearts of gods, 
But fear, lest Justice with the spade of Zeus 
Thy race in utter ruin overthrow, 1240 

The torch thy body and thy circling domes 
Keduce to cinders with Likymnian bolts. 


BifcacoraT av Xrjt^Beio'a 'jraa&v ^IpiBayv 

IPIS aXX' d0avaT6<; elfi. 

IIEL aXV 2/^0)9 civ direOave^. 

Beivorara yap rot Treiaofiea-O', ifjuol SoKetv, 1225 

el t£v fiev dWcov ap^ofiev, vfiel^ S* ol deoX 
dKoKaaravelrey KovBiirco yvooaea-O* otl 
dfcpoare Vfuv ev fiipec t&v KpeiTTOvayv, 
(fypdaov Si to I fJLOi, rdi inepvye irol vavcrrokel^;; 

IPI2 eyco; 7rpo9 dvOpdirov^ nrirofMac irapd tov irarpd^ 1230 
^pdaovaa Oveiv T0i9 oXvfiTrioc^ 0eoi<; 
fiTJXoa-^ayeiv re ^ov0vtoc<; eir io"x^dpai<i 
KVLadv T dyvid<s. 

IIEI. TL av Xeyet^] ttoIoi^ deoU; 

IPIS cTToloKTiv; TjfiLv Tol<; iv ovpavS Oeol^. 

IIEI. Oeol yap t;/A6?9; 1235 

IPIS t/9 yap i(TT aWo9 ^609; 

IIEI. opvide^ dpdpdiroKTC vvv elaiv Oeoi, 

oh Ovriov avTOv<i, dWd fid AC ov 7^ AiL 

IPIS (3 fioope, fieope, fxrj Oewv xlvec (fypiva^, 

Sei(ra<; 27rcD9 fir/ crov 761/09 iravdXedpov 

Ai09 fMaKeWrj irdv dvaaTpiyfrei BUi], 1240 

Xiyvv^ Be (ToSfia xal Sofxcov TrepLTTTV^d^ 

KaratdakwaeL aov XiKVfiviaL^ l3o\aL<;» 



Pet. Hark'ee, my lady ! cease your shrewish rant ; 
Be still] with words like these, I wish to know, 
Lydian or Phrygian do you think to scare) U46 

If Zeus disturb us longer — mark me well — 
His palace and Amphion's domes will I 
Reduce to cindtrs with fire-carrying eagles: 
And, warring on him, I'll despatch to heaven 
Magogian birds, in pardskin uniforms, 1250 

Above six hundred by the tale; and once 
He found a single Magog troublesome. 

Iris, Perdition seize you, wretch, with your vile language. 
Fei. Shoo ! shoo ! be off, and suddenly : quick march ! 
Iris, My sire will quell your insolence, I swear. 
Fei Dear, dear ! how very sad ! come, fly away, 1260 

Fly, and reduce to cinders some small child. [JSasU Iris, 

Cho. We*re excluding all intritding 
Of the Jove-descended gods; 
Through our /ortijled abodes 
Never may they travel more. 
Nor by this road to gods again 
ShaU sa/oour rise of victims slain 
On any mortals sacrificial floor, iMs 

Fei. Too bad ! that herald who was sent to mortals. 
It seems as if he never would return, 1270 

Fnter Heral4. 
Herald. O Peithetairos, thou blest, thou wisest, 


IIEI. atcovaoVy aZrrf irave rwv iraifyXcurfidTedv' 

ex drpifia, <f>€p* tSoo, irorepa AvBop fj ^pvya 

ravrl Xiyovcra fiopfioXvTTeaOai Soxet^] 1245 

ap^ ol<tS' 2t£ Zeu? et fie XyTrrjaei irepa, 

fieXaOpa fikv avrov koI Sofiov^ ^ Kfi^lovo^ 

KaTaiOaXdaoD irvp^opoiaiv deTol^\ 

'jrifJA^eo Sk irop^vpltovaf; €9 rov ovpavbv 

opvi^ eir avTov iraphaXa^ evrjfifievov^ H50 

irXelv e^aKoaiov^ rov dpiOfiov. koX irj irore 

eU iropifyvpitov avrS irapea'xe irpayfiaTCL, 

IPIS Svappayeirj^j w fieX\ avTo2<i prjfiaatv. 

IIEI. ovic diroao^TjO'ei,^) ov Ta;j^€Ci)9; evpa^ Trara^. 

IPiS rj fi'qv ae iravaei rrj^ v^peco^ ovfid^ Trarijp. 

IIEI. otfioc ToXa^. ov/covp erepaxre irerofiemi 1260 

KaraidaXwaec^ t&v vetoreptov Tivd\ [Exit Iris, 

XO. diroKeKXyKafiev SLoyev€L<i 0€oi)<; > 

firjKeri T'^v ijjirjv Biairepav ttoXvv, 
firjSe Tiv lepoOvTov dvd BdireSov av ere 1265 

rySe Pporwv Oeourc irifiTreiv Kairvov, 

IIEI. heivov ye rdv KrjpvKa top irapd to\><; ^porov^ 

olxofi€vov, el firjBeTTore voarrjo-ei irdXiv, i2p 

Enter Herald. 
KH. cS TletOiraip^y <S fiaxapc, ci crocfxoTaTe, 

ACT 11. 

O thou thrke blest and noblest, thou smoothest, 
Call silence, O call silence. 

Fei. What's your news? 

Herald. All people crown you with this golden crown 
For your sagacious tact, and honour you. 1276 

Pel. Thanks ! Why am I thus honoured of the people ? 

Herald, O founder of a most illustrious 
Etherial city, are you not aware 
What honour you have won in men's esteem, 
How many are enamoured of this land? 

Until th's city was establish'd by you, i2so 

All men had been Lakonomaniacs ; 
They wore long hair, they fasted, they went dirty 
Like Sokrates, they carried skytal-staves : 
But now, converted, they've become birdmaniacs. 
And in this new delight do everything 

That's done by birds, in mimicry of them. 1283 

First, when they wake at early mom, they'll fly 
Together all to pasture, like ourselves. 
And then they'll settle down upon the books. 
And there continue feeding on decrees. 

So manifestly bird-mad are they that 1290 

To many men are given the names of birds. 
One limping shopkeeper they call a partridge : 
Menippus is a swallow, and Opuntius 
An eyeless raven; Philokles a lark; 


w Tpia/iaKapi, cS KkecvoTar, c3 yXaipvpcirare' 
gS KaraKeKevaoVy KaraKeXevaov. 

IIEI, tI ai Xeyet?; 

KH. a'T€<f>avqi ae 'X^pvcr^ rtpSe ao^ia^ ovvexa 

o'Te^avovo'L KaX rifiooa-iv oi iravre^ Xecp, 1275 

IIEI. Si^ofiac. TV S' ovTco^ oi Xe^ Tifiwcri fie) 

KH. cS KXeivoTarrjv aiOepiov ol/cCaa^i iroXiv, 

ovK olard^ iarjv Tifirfv trap avQpdmoi^i <f>ep€L, 

o<rou9 T ipaoTci^ rrjo-Be rrj^ X^P^^ e;^€49. 

TTplv /M€v yap olKlaac ae Ti^vSe rrjv iroXip, 1280 

iXaKcovofidvovv &7ravT€^ ivOponTrov rore, 

i/coficjv, eireivcav, ippvirfav, iaay/cpdroDVy 

i(TKVTaXio(f>6povv' vvv S* viroa-Tpiy^avTe^ av 

opvidofiavovai, Trdvra S* iirb t^9 r]Sovrj<: 

iTOLovaLv airep opvide^ eKfiLfMov/ievoL' 1285 

irp&Tov fihv €vdv<; Trdvre^ ef evvfjf; d/jua 

iirerovff %co6ev wairep rjfiel^ cttI vofiSv' 

KuireLT av afia KaTjjpov e? rd ^i^Xla" 

elr av ive^iovr ivravda rd y^rjcfyla-fiaTa, 

copviOofidvovv S' ovTO) 7repi<f>avoi)^ &<tt6 kclI 1290 

iroXXouTLV 6pvL0cov ovofJLaT Tjv Keifxeva, 

irepBi^ fikv eh KdirrfXa^ dvofid^ero 

X(oX6f;, 'MevLTTirtp 8' i]v j^eXfcSciz/ rovvofia, 

^OttovvtI^ S' 6<f>0aXfi6v ov/c e^tov Kopa^, 

; ACT II. 

Theogenes vulpanser, and Lykurgos 1205 

Is term'd an ibis, Chaerephon a bat, 

A magpie Surakosios; Meidias 

A quail thej call, for he is like a quail 

By a quaU-smiter wounded in the head. 

And all from biitl-delight are singing ballads, laoo 

In which is any mention of a swallow. 

Of widgeon, goose, or woodpigeon, or wings. 

Or e'en a slight suspicion of a feather. 

Such tidings from that world. But one thing learn: 

Ten thousand men or more will come to you laos 

From thence, desiring wings and crook-claw'd Cushions : 

So wings you must find somewhere for the comers. 

Fei. Faith, then, our business won't be standing still. 
Ton there, set off with speed, and fill the hampers, 
And every basket you can find, with wings. [To a slave, isio 
Let Manes carry to me out of doors 
Those wings: and I'll receive the visitors. 

^nter a vx)tddrbe Parricide. 

Pa/r, A high-flying eagle I would be 

To fly o'er the surge of the barren blue sea. 


KopvS6<: ^t\oK\€€C, yrivciXdnrri^ ®€oyej/€i, 1295 

Zy869 AvKoiprfcp, "Kaipe^oivTi vvfcrepk, 
Xvpa/coal^ Sk Klrra' MecBla^ &' ixel 
opTV^ eKoXelro* kuI yap yxetv 6pTvyi 
VTT OpTUyOKOTTOV TTJP K€<f>aXrjv 7r€7r\7jyfiiv^, 
^Sov S' VTTO <t>iKopvt0la<; iravre^ fieXrf, 1300 

^TTOif 'XjekiSc^v ffv Tt9 ifjLireTTOLrjfiivij 
rj irrjviXo'^ 17 j^i^i/ t^9 rj irepiarepa 
fj irripvye^t tj irrepov tl koX afiiKphv irpoa-rjv, 
Toiavra fiev raKeldev, %v he croc \iya>' 
fj^ova iK€i0€v Sevpo irXetv fj fiipLOb 1305 

wrepdiv Seofievoc kol rpoirav yafiyjfa}vvj(a)v* 
ware irrepoSv coi roi<: iiroUoi^; Set iroOev, 
IIEI. oH rapa fia AC Tjfilv Ir' epyov kardvai. 

a\V ©9 Td')(i,aTa <rx> fikv Icop rd^ dppl'xpv^ 
KaX Toi)9 no^lvov^ airavra^ ifnTlfiirXi] irrep&v' 13 10 

[To a slave, 
Mavrj^ Sk <t>€piTeo /wi Bvpa^e rd irrepd' 
€70$ S' eKelveop T0V9 irpoaiovra^i Si^ofiac. 

^ JSnter a would-be Parricide. 

HAT. yevolfiav aUro^ vyfrtiriTa^, 

©9 &v TroTadelrjv virkp , , . drpvyirov 
yXavK&f; iir olhfia Xlfiva^, 


Fei. Our herald's tale seems likely to be true : mo 

Here comes a fellow singing about eagles. 

Far. Ho, ho 1 there's nothing half so sweet as flying : 
IVe the bird -mania; yes, to fly I wish 
And dwell with you; and I desire your laws. isifi 

Fei. What laws d'ye mean? For birds have many laws. 

Far. All : chiefly that it's held a law of honour 
In birds to strangle and to peck their fathers, 

Fei. Ay, and in fact when a young cock stands up 
And spurs his sire, we hold him very — ^manly. laso 

Far. Therefore I migrate hither, and desire 
To choke my father, and possess his fortune. 

Fei Yes, but we birds have got an ancient law 
Kept in the record office of the storks. 

That when the parent stork has reared his brood 1355 

And turn'd them out all capable of flying. 
The storklings in their turn must feed their sire. 

Far. Much good then have I got from coming here. 
If I must e'en be made to feed my father. 

Fei. Nay, nay, not so : for since you came, poor wretch, i360 
With friendly feelings to us, I'll contrive 
To fit you, as an orphanbird, with wings. 
But take this hint, young fellow, not a bad one. 
Which I got in my boyhood: don't go back 


HEI. eoLKev ov yfrevBar/yeXija-eiv iyyeXo^. 1340 

aBa)v yap 2Se t*9 aeroi)? Trpoa-epx^Tai* 

HAT, al^ol' 

ovK ea-TCV ovSev tov irerearOaL yXvfcvrepov' 
opvLBofiavQ) yap Kal ireTOjiai, KaX ^oiXofiac 
olicelv fi€0* vfi(Sv KaTnOvfMco tcov vofMov, 1345 

HEI. iroiayv v6fi(ov) iroXKoX yap opvldcov vofioi, 

HAT. irdvTGiv' fiaXiara B* ore kgXov vofii^ere 

TOV TraTcpa toI<; cpvcacv ay')(eLv KaX BaKvecv, 

nEI. KaX vrj AC avBpelov ye irdvv vofii^Ofiev, 

09 dv 7r€7r\f]y7j tov iraTepa vcotto^ cSv, 1350 

II AT. Bed TavTa fiivTOC Bevp^ dvoiKiaOeX^ iym 

ay)(eiv i7ri6vfioo t6v iraTcpa KaX irdvT €^€ti/. 

HEI. a\V eaTCV tjiuv toIo-lv opvuriv vofio^ 

iraXaw iv Tal<i twv irekapywv Kvp/Seaiv' 

€7rrjv 6 iraTTJp 6 ireXapyo^ iKTreTrjalfiov^ 1355 

irdvTa^ iroirjo'Tj toi)? TreXapycBrj^; Tpi<f>Q)v, 

Bei T0U9 v€OTTOv<s TOV TTaTcpa irdXiv Tpe(f>€LV, 

HAT. aTreXava-d Tapa vrj AC iXOcov ivOaBl, 

etirep ye fioc KaX tov iraTepa ^ocrKrjTeov. 

IIEI. ovBev y. eTreiBrjirep ydp ^\^e9, c3 /jueXe, 1360 

evvov^, TTTepda-Q) a &airep opvw op^avov, 
o'ol B\ (S veaviaK, ov /ca/cc59 VTroffrjaofiat, 
dXX^ oldirep avTO^ efiadov 2x6 iral^ 'fj, av yap 


And beat your fatber: but receive this wing 

In the one hand, and this spur in the other, 1965 

And wear this crest as 'twere a cock's : then go, 

Serve both in garrison and in the field 

For soldier's pay: so let your father live; 

And since your tastes are warlike, Thraceward fly, 

And fight your fill there. 

Far, Ay, by Dionysus, 

I deem your counsel good, and I'll obey 
Your bidding. iSTo 

Pet. 'Tis a wise resolve, by Jove. \EQcn^ Parricide. 

Enter an Informer. 

Inf, Hither as the track I follow, 
Certain birds appear in view, 

Dapplewing'd, without a sou; uio 

O pinionstretching dappled swallow ! 

Pei, This newly-wakened pest is not a light one : 
Here comes another fellow trilling airs. 

Ir^. O pinionstretching dappled one 'da capo.' 1415 

Pei, Methinks upon his cloak he sings the catch; 
He seems to want no small amount of swallows. 

Inf, Who is't supplies the visitors with wings? 

Pei, Your humble servant. What are your commands? 

Inf, Wings, wings I want: you need not ask me twice. 

Pei, Direct to Woolston do you mean to fly? 1421 

Inf, No : but an island-summoner am I, 
And an informer. 


Tov fikv warepa fjurj rvirre' TavTi]vSl Xa/Scov 

rrjv TTripirya koI tovtI to TrkfJKTpov Odripa, 1365 

vofiiaa^ dXefcrpvovo^ i^^iv rovhl \6<j>ov, 

if)povp€L, arparevov, fiKrOo^op&v aavrbv rpe^e, 

TOV iraTkp la ^fjv' dXX iireiB^ fid'x^i^iio^ eZ, 

€9 Taifi Spg^fCf}^ oTTOTTeTOV KUKel fidxov. 

IIAT. vrj TOV Aiovva-ov eu ye fiot SokcU \iyeiv, 1370 

teal irelaofiai aoi. [Eooit Farricide, 

HEI. vovv ap ?f€A9 vi^ Ala. 

Enter an Informer. 

STK. opvL0h Tive^ o2S' ovSkv Ij^oin-e? irTepoTroUiKoi, 1410 

TavvcLiTTepe irocKtKa ^^eXtSo?' 
IIEI. tovtI ri Kaxiv ov ^avKov i^eypi^yopev. 

8S' av ficvvpl^cov Sevpo rt? Trpoaep^eraL 
2TK. TavvaiirTepe iroi/ctka fidlC avOi^. 14 15 

IIEI. 69 Oolfidriov TO axoktov aiSecv fioc Soxeiy 

ielaBai, S' loiKcv ovk oklyayv j(€\tB6va)v. 
2TK. t/9 o irrepdiv Sevp* earl toi)9 d<f>iKvovfiivov<;; 
IIEI. oSl Trdpea-Tiv' a\X' 2toi; Set j^p?) Xeyeiv, 
IETK. TTTeptSv, 7rT€p(Sv Bet fi^ irvdy t6 SevTcpov. 1420 

IIEI. fimv ev6\> HeXKrivii^ iriTeadac Scavoet; 
STK. fid AC dXKa teXfjTi^p elfAt vfj(n<0Tik6^ 

zeal avfeo^dvTfj^ 


Fei. What a blessed trade ! 

In/, Ay, and a suit-promoter : so I want 
A suit pf wings to fly about my circuit 
And scare the cities with my writs of summons. 1425 

Fei, With wings you'll summon then more cleverly? 

Irif, No: but, to save annoyance from the pirates, 
I'll travel back in the crane caravan, 
With many lawsuits swallowed down for ballast. 

Fei, So that's your business, yours, a strong young man. 
To bring vexatious charges against foreigners? 1431 

Irif. What can I do? I never leam'd to dig. 

Fei, But surely there are other decent trades, 
In which a fuUgrown man might get his bread 
By doing rather than perverting justice. i486 

Irif, Correct me not, but wing me, noble Sir. 

Fei, I do, by speaking. 

Inf. Wing by speech? how so? 

Fei. All men are wing'd by speeches. 

Inf. All men? 

Fei. ' Yes. 

Have you not often heard, when to their friends 
In barbers' shops the fathers thus discourse : 
*Too bad: Dieitrephes has wing'd with talk 1410 


IIEI. (S fiatcdpie t^9 tcj^i/t;?. 

STK. koX 7rpar/fiaToSl(fyrj<;, cira Siofiat irrepci Xa/Swu 

KVK\(p irepiao^elv tcl^ TroXet? KcCKovfievo^, 1425 

DEI. virb TTTepvycov rl irpoa-KaXel ao^wTepov, 
2TK. fJLa AC aW* IV ol Xyarai re firj Xvirwal fi€, 

/Mera rwv yepdvtou r ixeWev ava'Xfidpw iraXiv, 

dv0* epfiaro^ TroWa? KaTaTrewcoKoo^ Bifca^:, 
IIEI. tovtI yap ipyd^ei av roSpyov; elire fwi, 1430 

veavla^ Av avKO(pavT€i^ tov^ ^ivov^; 
STK. tI yap irddto] orKairreLV yap ovk iiriaTaiiat, 
IIEI. dXK! eariv erepa vrj AC epya (T(o<f>povat 

d(j} (Sv Bia^rjv dvBpa XPV^ roaovrovX 

ix Tov BcKalov fiaWbv rj ScKoppa<f>€iv, 1435 

2TK. <S Sacfiovie, fifj vovOirec fiy dWd irrepov, 
IIEI. vvv TOV XeycDV irrepo) ae. 
STK, teal irw^ av X07049 

dvSpa nrreptoa-eva^ av\ 
IIEI, Trai/re? tol \6yoL^ 

2TK. 7raj/T69; 

IIEI. ovic aKTjKoa^, 

orav XiyaxTiv ol Trarepe? eKoarore 

TOL^ <f>v\eTaL^ iv rourc Kovpeioi^ raSl; 

Seivoif: yi fjLov rd fieipaKiov AuTpi(fyq^ 1440 


That lad of mine to drive his curricle.' 

Another says, his boy is all a-wing 

For tragedy, and fluttered in his mind. 1445 

Inf, So then by speeches they are wing'd? 

Pei. They are. 

By speeches intellect is elevated 
And the man raised aloft. And so would I 
Wing you with honest words, and turn you to 
A lawful trada itfo 

Inf, But I will not be turned. 

Fei, What will you do then) 

Inf. Not disgrace my kindred: 

Informing's my ancestral occupation. 
So fit me with some light and rapid wings, 
Falcon's or hawk's, that I may serve my writs 
On foreigners, then plead against them here, i45r 

Jhen fly back there again. 

Pci. I catch your meaning. 

'TIS this : that, ere the foreigner arrives. 
He may be cast in damages. 

Inf Exactly. 

Tei. And whQe he's sailing hither, off you fly 
To foreign parts and seize his goods. 1400 

Inf You've hit it 


o he T49 Tcv avTOV <l>rja'ip iirX rparftpZia 
avewrep^aOai KaX ireTroTfjadai Td<: tfipeva^. 1445 

2TK, XoyoLdl rapa seal irrepovvrail 

IIEI. <f>rjiA €760. 

VTTO yap \6ya)v 6 vov^ re fiereoDpl^erai, 
iiralperal 0* avdpwiro^. ovt(o kuI a iyd 
avainepdiaa^ fiovKofiac 'xp^crrol*; Xo7ot9 
rph^ac irpd^ Spyov vofjufjLov. 1450 

2TK. a\V ov fiovXofjuat, 

IIEL tI Sal iroc7](r€if;\ 

STK. tA 761^09 ov Karaia-'xyvw, 

iramr^f; 6 filo^ a'vtco<f>aPT€iv ia-rl fioi, 
dXkci wripov fie ra^'^o'c teal Kov<f>ob^ irrepoU 
Upaxo^ 7j ieepj(vySo<:, (o<; av toi)? ^ivov^ 
/cdKeardfievo^ /cqir €yK€K\rfKW ivOaBl 1455 

Kar ad irermfiai irakiv e/eela-e. 

IIEI. fiavOdvoD. 

(oSl TUyei^* Ztto)? ap (o<f>\i]Ky hiicriv 
ivOaSe irplv ffKeiv 6 ^evo^. 

STK. irdvv fiavOdpei^, 

nEI. Kaireiff 6 p^p ifKel Sevpo, cd 8' eKela av irerei, 

dpiraaofMepo^ rd XPVH'^'^* avTOV. 1460 

2TK. irdpT e)(€i^. 


ACT 11. 

A top's the very thing to be. 

Pei. A top ! 

I comprehend; and, by the powers, IVe got 
These capital wings of Korkyrean make. 
Irif. Woe's me ! youVe got a whip. 
Pei. No, no; two wings, 

With which I mean this day to set you spinning. [Whips him. 
Inf. Alas, alas! 140B 

Pei. Come, wing your way from hence 

And trickle off, abominable hangdog: 

Your justicetwisting tricks shall cost you dear. [EodU Informer. 
Now let us gather up the wings and go. 

\Evit Peithetmros with slaves. 
Cho. Ma/ny vxmdrous things and new Strophe. 1470 

Come before my gliding view : 
Mcmy very stalling sights 
We ha/ve noticed in owr flights. 
From the common road apartj 
At some distance beyond HaH, 
Stands a tree beheld by vs. 

And its name Kleon/umos: 1475 

Fearfid His a/nd tall to see. 
Yet a goodfor-nothing tree. 
In the springtime when it grows. 
Many a load of figs it shews, 


/5i/JLl3iKO^ ovSkv Si><uf}ip€iP Bet. 
DEI. fiav0dp(o 

fiifilSiKa' /cal fiffv €<tti fiot vrj rdv Aia 

KoXXiara /copKvpaia roiavrl irrepd, 
2TK. olfioi ToKa^, fidoTcy' €X€49. 
nEI. TTTepcJ fi€V oiv, 

oXa-l ere iroirjato rrfp^pov jSefi^iKiav, [Whips him. 1455 
2TK. oifiot rdXa^. 
DEI. ov TrrepvyicL^ ivTev0€p{; 

ovK airoKiPd^ei^y co KdKiar diroXovfjuevo^; 

iTLKpdv rd^ oy^ei a-TpeyjroBtKOTravovpylav. 

t [Exit Irtformer. 

diria)fjL€V Tjfiet^ ^vWafiovre^ rd irrepd, 

[Eodt Feithetairos ivith slaves. 
XO. TToWd S17 teal xaipd teal 0av^ 1470 

fida-T iireiTTOfieaOa xal 
Seipd irpdyfjuar etSofiep. 
iari ydp SipBpop ttc^u^o? 
Iktottop Tt KapBla^ a- 

irtorepcd "KXedpypLO^^ 1475 

')(pr}crifiop filu ovSip^ a\- 
\fi>9 Bk BeiXqv KoX p,4ya. 
TOVTO Tov fjifkv rjpo^ dei 
fiXaoTTdpet Koi av/co^mpret, . . 



But in winter on the Jidda \4» 

Its branches shed not leaves hut shields. 

Therms a region far atioa/y, Antistrophe. 

Where ov/r pinions seldom strai/y 

Unto Nightlands borders necMr, 

In NoUgMLanHs desert drear. 

There the cJiiMren of mankind 1466 

Often have with heroes divHd^ 

And toith heroes can dbide. 

Only not at eventide; 

At that season Hwovid not be 

Safe to keep their company. 

If at night mortal wigh^t i4oo 

• • • 

Doth upon Orestes light. 
Hero bold, he^s stript by him, 
And smitten in each noble limb. 

Enter Pbometheus disguised, amd under a sunshade. 

Pro, Me miserable! mind Zeus see me not! 
Is Peithetairos in? 1406 

Re-enter Peithetairos. 
Pel. Hilloal who's here? 

What wraps are these? 

Pro, D'ye spy ^ome god behind me? 


Tov a j(€ifi£vo^ irdXiv Ttt9 1480 

cunrlSa^ <j>v\Xoppo€l. . 

ecTTft S' av x^P^ 7r/3^9 avrS 

€v0a T0t9 rfpaxTLv dvOpto^ 1485 

iroL ^xnfapi^T&crt KaX fi/i/- 
e£<rt irXriv rrj^ €<nrepd<i, 
rrjviKavra S* ovKer ffv 

el fydp hfTvxot Tt9 ^p^ 1490 

T&V /SpOTiSv VVfCT&p ^OpioTTI, 

jVfjLvb^ ^v irKrjyel^ vir avTOV 
irdma TairiSi^ui. 

Bnter Prometheus disguised^ and under a sunsJtade, 

nPO. otfioc ToXa^, 6 Zet)? ottoi? /*?; fi oy^era^ 

irov JleiOiraipo^ ear; 1495 

Re-enter Peithetairos. 

IIEI. ea tovtI tl ^v; 

rk ovyKaXvfifiS^; 

nPO. tSv 0€(3v 6p^^ TLVCU 

ifiov KaroTTiv ivTav0a\ 

ACT 11. 

PeL Not I, upon my honour! Who are you? 

Fro, Inform me then what time o' day it ifl. 

Fei. What time o' day? The early afternoon. 
But who are you? isoo 

Fro. Towards four o'clock, or later? 

Fei. Your folly sickens me. 

Fro. What's Zeus about? 

Clearing the clouds off, or collecting them? 

Fei. A mischief to you. 

Fro. Well then, 111 unveiL [Throws off^his disguise, 

Fei. Prometheus, my dear friend ! 

Fro. Stop, stop, don't shout. 

FeL Why not? isos 

Fro. Be quiet; don't call out my name, 

I'm lost for ever if Zeus view me here. 
But, while I'm telling you the news from heaven, 
Just take this sunshade, will you? hold it up 
Above my head, that so the gods mayn't see me. 

Fei. Bravissimo ! a good device indeed, isip 

Of true Promethean fancy! Come, be quick. 
Step under, and then speak without alarm. 

Fro. Now listen with attention. 


IIEL /ta dkC iyw fiev ov. 

rh S' el au; 
nPO. irrfvi/c iarlv dpa t^9 i^fiipa^; 

IIEL oTTTjvUa; afiiKpov rt fiera fiearffijSplav. 

dXkci (TV TL^ eZ; 1500 

nPO, jSovXvThi; fj Trepairepa] 

IIEL otfi CB9 ^BeXvTTOfiai &e, 
nPO. Tt yap 6 Zeu? iroiel; 

aTraiOpcd^et ra^ V€(f>€Ka^ ^ ^vvvi<l>€Vf 
IIEL ot/jLa>^€ /i€7a\\ 
nPO. ovTto fiev i/CKoXifylro/JuiL 

[Tho'ows off his cUaguise, 
IIEL cS ^iXe npofjLTjOev. 
nPO. 7rav€f irave, fjbtj /36a, 

IIEL tI yap ear*; 1505 

nPO. alya, (mtj KoKei fiov rovvofia' 

dird yap fi oXel^, et fi ivddK 6 Zei)? oy^CTai. 

aXX' iva <f>pouT(o cot iravra ravoa irparffiara^ 

tovtX Xa^div fjLov rb aKcdBeiov virepe'xe 

av(oo€V, 0)9 av fit) fjL opwatv 01 ueot,. 
IIEL toi) lov' 1 510 

€v y iirevorjaa^ avrd /cat 7rpofi7j0itc£^. 

VTToBvOi Taj(y Sfj Kara Oapp'/jca^ Xeye. 
nPO. aKove Bi] vvv. 


Pei. Speak: I listen. 

Pro, Well ! Zens is ruinecL 

PeL Can you date his ruin? 

Pro, From your first atmospheric settlement. isis 

No man from that time offers anything 

To gods; no savour comes to us on high 

From legs of mutton: mulcted of our victims, 

We fast as in the Thesmophorian days: 

And wild with hunger the barbarian gods, 1520 

All screeching like lUyrians, fiercely say 

Theyll march their armies from above on Zeus, 

Unless hell open all the ports, that tripe 

And sausages may enter duty-fre& 

PeL How? are there other and barbarian gods i6a5 

Above yourselves? 

Pro, What are they but barbarians, 

Whence Exekestides obtains his siregod? 

Pel. And these barbarian gods, what is their name? 

Pro. Their name? Triballi 

PeL Oh, I understand : 

That means to say, they are a Hribe allied.' isao 

Pro, Just so. But let me state on^ certain fact: 


nEI. CO 9 aKovovTo^ Xiye, 

nPO. aTroKcaiKev 6 Zev^, 

IIEL irqviK arr dirdXcro; 

nPO. €f ovirep Vfieh ^fclaare rbv aepa. 15 15 

diet yap ovSel^ ovSkv avOpdiraav ^c 
OeoXa-iv, ovBe Kvtaa iirjpUov airo 
dvrj\0€p ©9 ?7/Lta9 ott ckcIvov tov ypovoVj 
dW' wcTrepel 0€<r/jLO<f>opioi9 vrfaTevofiep 
av€V 0V7)\£p' ol ik fiapfiapoc deoX 1530 

7r€ti/c3i/T€9 &<nr€p ^iWvpioX KeKpiryore^ 
iiruJTparevcreiv <f>da dvoadev r^ AU, 
et firf wapi^ei rdfiiropC dvet^fiiva^ 
Xv elo'dyoiTO airXdrfxya KaraTerp/rj/iiva. 

nEI. elalv ydp irepoi ^dpfiapoi Oeol t4i/€9 1525 

nPO. 01; ydp elai fidp/3apot, 

Wev irarp^o^ iariv ^^^rfKearlSfj; 
IIEL ovofia Sk rovToi^ T0Z9 0€oi9 to?9 ^apffdpoi<: 

nPO. 2 Tt €<mv; Tpi/SaWol. 

nEI. fiav0dva), 

ivT€v0€V dpa ToviriTpi/Selrf^ iyevero; 1530 

nPO. fidTuara irdvrtov. iv Si aot \iy(o aa<f)€^' 


From Zeus and those Triballians up above 

Envoys are coming here to treat for peace : 

But don't conclude on any terms but these : 

That Zeus restore the sceptre to the Birds, i536 

And give you Royalty to be your bride. 

FeL Who is this Royalty? 

Fro, A lovely maid, 

Who has the charge of Zeus's lightning-closet 
And all his other stores, his maxims sage. 
His wholesome laws, his temperance, his dockyards, isjo 

His slang, his paymaster, his sixpences. 

FeL Why, then she keeps his all. 

Fro. She really does: 

And when youVe got her from him, youVe got all. 
'Twas for that reason that I came to tell you: 
IVe always been a zealous friend to men. 1545 

Fei. True; you're the only god through whom we grill. 

Fro. And all the gods, you're well aware, I hate. 

Fei. Yes, this cleaves to you ever, hate of gods. 

Fro. A genuine Timon ! But I must run back ; 
So hand me here the sunshade, that, if Zeus isso 

From upper realms behold me, I may seem 
To follow in due form the basket-bearer. 

Fei There ! take this campstool also for your purpose. 

[Eocit Fromethetis. 



fj^oviTi 7rpe<ry8e49 hevpo irepl huiXKarf&v 

irapa rov A^o? koX t&v TpijSaWoiv roiv avta* 

VA&et? 06 /xt; airevbeao y eav /atj Trapabtoa) 

TO aKYjirrpov 6 Zei)? rotaiv opviacv iroKtv, 1535 

KoX rrjv ^aaCKetdv <tol yvvaiK €)(€LV Sl8^. 

nPO. KaXKloTT) KOprjf 

riirep ra/juievec rev Kepavvov rov Ato? 
KoX TaX)C aira^airavTa^ rrjv €v/3ov\lap, 
TTJp evvofilav, Trjv am^poa-vmjv, rd vedptay 1540 

Tfjv XoiSoplav, TOP Ka)\aypiTi]v, rd rpKo^dka, 

nEI. Ubiravrd rap avT<p raficevet; 

npo. (i>i]fi €70). 

fjv y fjv en) Trap iieeivov TrapaXd^'p^, iravr e;^et9. 

TovTtov €V€Ka SeOp* ffKdoVy Lva ^pouraifil aoi. 

del TTOT dvOpJmoL^ yap eijvov^ etfi iyoo. 1545 

IIEI. fjLOVov Oe&v yap Sid a diravOpaKi^ofiev. 
nPO. fiiaS S* airapra^ toi)? Oeov^, ©9 olada <rv. 
IIEI. vrj TOP AC del Br^ra OeofiLarj^ €<f>v^. 
II PO. Tlfitop KaOapo^, dXX c»9 dp dTroTpi^o) irdXip, 

<f>ip€ t6 aKuiSetop, Xpa fie k&p 6 Zei}^ IBjj 1550 

av(o0€Py dfcokovOelv Soxoi xapTf^optp, 
IIEI. Kol t6p Sl^pop ye Bt^po^opec topBI Xa^dp, 

\^Exit Prometheiu, 


ScESTBL Fart of Ae ramparU cf ClomBatAoAonmgk ; an 
aleave «» ike woeme as a HjcJLem when PnrmRAiBOS is 
engaged wiik sUaxs cooking. Ewier PoBnooir, Hkraklbs 
and Teiwai J4WL 

Pos. ^*ffg"JiJJU 18 the fortress of doadcackDoborongh 

Within our Tiew, to whidi we're sent as 

Whafs that joa're doing theret pulling your doak 
To ihe left side in that ungainly stylet 
Pnt round and draw it, can't yoat to the rig^t. 
Ah, clumsy being! you're a bom Laispodia& 

\To the TribaUian god. 
What win you bring us to. Democracy^ 1570 

If the gods choose a deputy like thist 
Be stilL Tou plague! Of all the gods Fve seen 
You are the one most barbarous by far. [To the TribaUian again. 
Well, Herakles, what's to be done? 

Iler, YouVe heard. 


Scene. Pa/rt of ths ramparts of Clovdcuckoohorimgh ; am, 
alcove in the scene as a kitchen where Peithetairos is 
engaged with slaves cooking, ErUer Poseidon, Herakles 
and Tbiballos. 

^^-^^ E^li^l^ t^^^ iroKuTfia rrj^ N€(l)e\o/coK/evyia^ 1565 

opav ToSl TrdpeoTiv, ol irpefT^evofiev, 
ovTo<i tL Spa^; ctt' dptcrrep ovtg)9 dfiTri'xei; 
ov jMera^aXel OolfidrLov wS* iirl Be^la; 
rly cS /caicoSacfiov ; AatavroBla^ el rrjv ^va-/>v; 

[To the Trib{dlian god. 
c3 SrjfioKparla, irol 7rpo^L^a<; rjfia^ irore, 1570 

el roi/TOvl Ke')(€(,poTOvrjica<r ol 6eoi\ 
%^eL^ drpi/JLa^i] of/xa)^€' iroXv yap Si] <r iydo 
iopa/ca iravrtav fiapfiapoiraTov 6e&v^ 

[To the TribalUan again. 

ar/e Brj rl Zp&iiev, *HpdicKus\ 
HP. dicriKoa% 


1 want to strangle him outright^ the man, isTS 

Whoe'er he is, that's walling out the god& 

Po8, Nay, Sir, bat our instructions are to treat 
For peace. 

Her. So much the more I vote for strangling. 


Pd, Hand the cheese-scraper, somebody : fetch silphium ; 
Bring cheese, and heat the coals within the grata ibbo 

[Aside to slaves. 

Pos, We bid the gentleman good day, we gods^ 
Three in commission* 

PeL Ndw then, scrape the silphium. [As before. 

Her. What meat is this you're dressing ? [To PeUhetavros. 

Pel. Certain birds 

Against the democratic birds arose, 
And suffered condemnation for high treason. ices 

Her. So then, you first scrape silphium on them, do youl 

Pel. Ah, Herakles, good morning. What's your pleasure? 

[Recognizing HeraMes. 

Pos, We're come as envoys from the gods to treat 
About a termination of the war. 

Pei. There's not a drop of oil within the cruse. 

Her. And yet your volaille wants a nice rich sauce. 1500 

Pos. We for our part gain nothing by the war. 
And you, by being friendly with the gods. 


ifiov y 2x4 TOP avOptoTTov dyxetv jSovXofiatf 1575 

2<7T*9 TTOT €<J0 6 TOl)? OcOIJ^ d'n'OT€L')(^l(Ta^, 

nOS. aXV, cSya^*, ypijfieaffa irepX SiaWaywv 


HP. BvirXaaiayf; /iSXKov ayyeiv fioi So/cel. 

IIEI. T?)i; TVpoKPrfaTlv Tt9 Sotg>' ^epe al\(f>Lov' 

Tvpov i\>€peT(o TA9' irvpTTokei TOx)<i avOpaxa^, 1580 

[Aside to ah/ves. 
DOS. Toz/ avBpa 'Xjalpeiv ol Oeol KeKevofxev 

rpel^ ovT€^ rjixel^, 
IIEI. dW' iiriKvA t6 a'iXxf>iov. [As before. 

HP. rd Se Kpia rov ravr iarlv ; [To Peithetavros. 

HEI. ipvtOh Tcve^ 

iiravioTd/xevoi T0Z9 SrjfWTiKoco'iv opviot^ 

eSo^av dhiKelv, 1585 

HP. elra Sfjra trtKifiLOv 

iiriKvy^ irpoTepov avTolcriv ; 

HEI. w xalp i ^UpaKXeif:, 

tI eari ; [Recognizing Heraldes. 

nOS. irpea^euovre^; '^^ei^ fJKo/Mev 

wapd tSv de&v irepX rov iroXefxov KaraXKcvyrj^. 

HEI. ekaiov ovfc evearcv ev ry XtjkvO^, 

HP. Koi ixrjv rd y opvldeui Xiirdp* elvav irpeirei. 1590 

n02. iJ/ieZ? re ydp 7roXe/ioui/T€9 ov KepSalvofiev, 
Vfiel^ T dv rjpZv rol^ 0€oU ovt€<; <f>CKoi 


Would have rain-water in your tanks at once. 

And live without cessation halcyon days. 

On all these points we bring fall powers to treat. isos 

Fei. Well; we were not the first in former time 
To war with you; and, now, if so resolved, 
And if at last you're willing to do justice. 
We'll come to terms. Our just demand is this, 
That Zeus restore the sceptre to us birds. leoo 

And if we settle things on this condition, 
I shall invite the embassy to luncheon. 

Her. I'm quite content with this, and give my vote — 

Fo8, For what, you madman ? You're a silly glutton : 
You'll rob your father of his royal swayl igq6 

Fei. So, sol and wo^'t you gods be stronger far 
If birds command below? For mortals now 
Conceal'd beneath the clouds hang down their heads, 
And call on you to witness perjuries. 

But, if you have the birds for your allies, leio 

When by the raven and by Zeus a man 
Shall swear, and break his plight, the raven then. 
Approaching unperceiv'd, shall pounce on him, 
And strike his eye out with a single blow. 

Fo8, Ay, by Poseidon, this at least's well said. 

JTer. I think so. I615 

F08, What do you say ] [To the TrihaUian, 


o/ij3piov iS(op av elyeT iv roU riKfiaa-iv, 

aXKVovIZm T av rjyeO^ i^fiipa^ del, 

TOVTWv irepl irdvTO)V avroKpdrope^ r/fcofiev. 1595 

IIEI. a\V ovT€ irphrepov irtoiroff' rjfiel^ rip^ajJL€V 

irdKi/iov 7rpo9 vfia^, vvv r iOiXofiev, el Soxeit 

icbv t6 SUaiov dWci vvv i0iXr)T€ Spav, 

a-TTOvSa^ TTOietaOaL rd Sk iUaC ia-rlv raBl, 

t6 atcrjiTTpov ^fiiv rouriv opvcaiv iraKiv 1600 

rov dkC diroSovvat* /civ ScaXKarrcifieOa 

€7rl TOurSe, roi^: Trpia-^ei^ err dpicnov KoKm. 

HP. ifjioX fikv dir6y(pri ravra Kal '^^i^ofiat^ — 

nOS. tI, S /eaKoBai/jbov ; rfKldiof; ical yda-Tpi^ eZ. 

diroarepel^; rdv irarepa rfj^ rvpavvlSo^; 1605 

IIEI. dXrjOe^; ov ydp fiei^ov vfjuei^ oi 0€ol 
Icrxfia-er, fjv SpvcOe^ Ap^toatv Karon ; 
vvv yAv 7' \mh toli^ v€(f>i\at(nv irfKe/cpvfi/JiivoL 
Kv^avT€<; iTnopKovaiv vfia^ oi jSporol' 
idv Sk Toi)? Spvi^ ^X^'^^ avjifid'xpv^, 1610 

irav ofiviiy t^9 t6v xSpa/ea Kal rhv Ata, 
6 /c6pa^ irapeKddv rovinopKovvTO^ XdOp^f 
wpo(rrrT6fi€vo^ i/exSylrei rov o^OaXfidv Oevdv. 

nOS* v^ t6v Ho<r€iB£ ravra ye roc /caXoi^ \4yeti9. 

HP. xdfiol Sofcet 161 5 

IIOS. ri Bal en) (fyj^ ; [To the Trihalliom, 



Tri. Nftbaisatreu. 

Pd. Yoa see, he gives assent. Hear foithennore 
How great a service we've in store for you. 
If any man shall vow to any god 
A sacrifioe, and then with artful quibbles 
Excuse himself and say, 'The gods can wait/ 
Declining from mere stinginess to pay, !<»> 

This also well exact. 

F089 How sof lefs see. 

PeL When the man's counting out a petty sum, 
Or sitting in his bath, a kite shall swoop 
Unnotic'd, clutch the coins, and carry up 
The value of two sheep unto the god. los 

Her, I vote for giving back the sceptre to them. 

P08. Ask the Triballian next. 
Her, Do you, Triballian, 

Consent to a sound whipping? 

Trl Stikaliki 


ffer. My proposal's good, he says. 

P08. If you both vote so, then I vote with you. isao 

Her, Sir, we concede this point about the sceptre. [To Peiath, 
Pel, Ay, but there's one thing more which I forgot. 

Hera indeed I yield to Zeus, but he 

Must give the Princess Boyalty to me 


TPI. vafiaca-arpev. 

IIEI. opa^; hratvel j^pdro^. Srepov vuv eri, 

aKovaaff oaov vfid^ ar/adov Troii]<rofi€V. 

eav T^9 dvOpoiTTODv Upetop r^ Oewv 

ev^dfiepo^ elra Sui<ro<l}i^i^Tai Xiytov, 

psveroX 0€ol, Kol fidiroSiSip fiiarfrlif, 1620 

dvaTrpd^ofiep xal ravra. 
n02. ipip i!Sa> T^ rpoTT^; 

IIEI. irav SiapvOfjmv dpyvpiStov tv^V 

ivOptoiro^ oSto^, ^ KaOrjrai \ovpb€vo^^ 

/earaTTTo/Mevo^ l/erivo^ dpircura^ \d0p^ 

irpofidrotp Svoiv ripbrjv dvoUrei, to5 Oe^. 1635 

HP. TO aicrprTpov diroBouvai iraKiLv y^<j}l^ofjLac 

TOVTow eyo). 
nOS. KoX TOP TpifiaXkop pvp epov. 

HP. o TpifiaXKo^, olpai^eip Soxei cot; 
TPI. aavpdxa 

HP. {fyrjal fi ed XiyeLP irdpv, 

nOS. el Toi SoKcZ <r^p ravra, KOfjuil <rvpSoK€t 1630 

HP. OVT09, Soxei hpap ravra rod a/d^irrpov irepL, [To PeistL 
HEI. Kol pt] At' &rep6p y iarlp oS */jbP^(T0rjp eyd, 

TTJp fjifkp yap ''Hpap TrapaSiSoDfic r^ Ail, 

Ttjp Se ^ctatKeuip t^p Koprjp yvvcuK ifiol 



In lawful wedlock. less 

Po8. Peace is not your object: 

Let us go home again. 

Pel. Little I care. 

Cook, mind you make the sauce sweet 

Her. My good man 

Poseidon, whither are you rushing off? 
Are we to go to war about one woman 1 
' Po8. What must we do theni . vmo 

H&r, Come to terms of course. 

Po8, Poor wretch, you know not that you're being duped. 
You harm yourself moreover. If Zeus die, 
After the kingdom has been given to these. 
You'll be a pauper: all the money's yours 
That Zeus will leave behind him at his death. i646 

Pd, O dear, O dear ! how sadly he deceives you ! 
Oome here aside, and have a word with me. 

Your uncle sets you wrong, unhappy Sir; 

Not one hair's breadth of all your father's goods 

Is yours by law. You're illegitimate. leeo 

Her, I illegitimate? What can you mean? 

Pei, You are, by Zeus ! a foreign woman's child : 
Or how d'ye think Athene could be heiress, 
A daughter, had she lawful brothers living? 


iKSoriov iarlv. 1635 

nOS. ov BiaWar/oiv ipa^, 

IIEI. okljov fioL fiiket. 

fjuiyevpe, rb tcaTayya-fia XP^ iroielv yXvKv, 
HP. <S SaifjLOVv dvOpdiironv Iloo-etSoi/, irol <f>epeL\ 

nOS. tL Sal irouSfiep; 1640 

HP. Tt; ButWarroifieda. 

nOS. tI 8*, ^Jfvp'; ovK ola6* i^airaroi/Mevo^ Trakai; 
pKairrev^ Be tov <n) aavrov. rjv yap diroddvrf 
6 Zev^, irapaBob^ tovtouti, rrjv rvpavvlBa 
irivfj^ eaet &v. aov ydp diravra ylyverac 
rd XP^M^^y ^^' ^^ ^ Zev^ diroffif^a-Ktov KarciKlirri. 

HEI. oXpiOb ToKa^ olov ae ireptao^l^eTai,, 1646 

Bevp ©9 ip! diroxfipifiaov, Xva rl <toi (f>pda<o, 
BiafidXKeral a 6 0€io^, & irovripe trv, 
T&v ydp irarpfptdv oi5S' d/eaprj p^irearl aot 
Kard Tov^ i/o/aou9* v60o^ ydp el kov yvrjaio^. 1650 

HP. eycJ v66o^\ rl \eyei^; 

HEI. en) pAirrot, vrj ^la 

Sv y ix ^ivq*; yvvaiKo^, rj ttcS? av irore 
eirUXTipov elvac rrjv ^AOrjvalav Boxeh, 
ovaav Ovyarip^ ovroav dBe\<f>wv yvriaUov ; 


Her, Well, but suppose my sire give me the money 1666 
After his death, by special codicil, 
As to a spurious son. 

Fd. The law forbids him. 

Why, this Poseidon, who's now cramming you, 


Will be the first to claim your father's money, 

Saying that he himself is lawful brother. 

Ill now recite to you the law of Solon: isao 

' A bastard shall hare no inheritance while lawful children are 
alive, and, if there are no lawful children, then the next of kin 
shall share the property between them.' loae 

Her. So then I've no claim to my father's money? 

Fd, No, none, by Zeus. Just tell me, did your father 
At any time present you to his wardsmen? 

Her, Met never: I'd been wondering at it long. leTO 

Pe% Why stare up at the sky with looks like cudgels? 
Stand on our side, and 111 create you king, 
I'll give you bird's milk to your heart's content. 

He/r, Again what you propose, I think, is just 

About the maiden, and I yield her to you. 1079 

Fd. And what say you? \To Faaeidon. 

F08, I vote the other way. 

FeL All rests with the Triballian. What say you? 

[To the TribaOicm. 


HP. t/ 8' tjv 6 Trarrjp ifiol StB^ rd j(pi]fiaTa 1655 

voOeV diroOvritTKoov; 
IIEI. <S v6fio^ airov ovk ia. 

0VT09 HotreiBciv irp&ro^y 89 hralpei ae vvv, 

avffi^erai trov r&v irarp^v j(pi^fKiToi)v 

^aaicoav dSeX^d^ avrd^ elvat 71^0*109. 

ipS 8h £97 teal TOP ^6\a}v6<; aoi vofiov, 1660 

v60q> Sk fifj elvai ay^ifOreUiv iralZcav ovTtov yvrjaitov. 

iciv Bk TToiSe^ p,fj coai yvrja-voi, T0J9 eyyvrdro) yivov^ 

fieretvai nSv 'xp^ifidnov. 1666 

HP. ifiol S* dtp' oifhkv T&v irarp^dDv yprnjidTiov 

HEI. 01; fikvTOi fid Ala. Xe^ov S6 fwt, 

^&7 a 6 irarrjp elaijyar/ €9 rov^ <f)pdT€pa^i 
HP. ov SrJT ifii ye. Kal S^r iOavfia^ov irdXai. 1670 
HEI. r/ S^r* avto /c€j(7jva^ oIkUlv fi\eira)v ; 

a\V ^v fjueff Tjfmv ^9, KaTaarrfaaf; a iyoa 

Tupavvov opvlOfov irapi^co aoc ydXa, 
HP. BiKaC ifioi/ye Kal irdXnf BoKel^ Xiyecv 

irepl r^9 fcSprj^, xdyoir/e irapaSlS<Dfil aoi, 1675 

HEI. tI Sal <n) ^9; [To Poseidon. 

nOS. rdvavrla '^<f)C^ofjLat. 

HEI. iv r^ Tpi/3aW^ irdv t6 irpS/yfia. rl cij \^6t9; 

[To the Triballian. 

,Ja^ ^ ^mtr^ jar n^da^ 

^^-x.. V',3r. tu»tt .«- 4ers »- ^Atda jair -ik 

^>ji»; Vf-tl rrsia» T*Tr -tattiw. oscL mu^ 
,^*. ^0iv^. ^tli. m *K nsBsvtt Tgcraeif-. -iMie: -Met 

,i^r ^il TTOL lee 

4^PsiwfcifA^- WW .'fwnr -bait .ivasc; '▼mie^ -yssL 

i^^^ L«t: ^mmt^ -out ^s^ .ne mr. i. -v^edmn^ 



TPI. KoKoLVi ic6pavva teal fieydXa jSaacXipav 

opvcTO irapaBiScjfiL 
HP. irapaSovpcu \iy€i, 

nOS. fict TOP AC ovj^ o2ro9 ye wapaSovvac Ai7€t^ 1680 

el i^rj fiafipa^ei 7' &a'ir€p al yeXiZive*;. 
IIEL ovKovv irapaSovvai, rai^ %6X£S(i(r£j/ \4yei, 
nOS. c^co iwv BtaWaTTeaOe koI ^vfi/Salvere' 

eyci S*, errecS'^ a<j>^v SoKeZ, airfijaofuu, 
HP. i^fuv & X€76i9 <ri) irdvra avrf)(fopelv Soxei. 1685 

oXV X0C yueff fiii&v axno^ ^9 Thv ovpavov, 

Xva TTJv ^aatkeiav seal rci irdin ixei Xdffr)^. 
HEI. 69 Kavphv ipa KareicSwqaav ovrotX 

69 T0V9 ydfiov^, 
HP» fiovKeade SfjT iyco Tefi)9 

oTTTcS ra #ep6a Taml fjbipcjv; vfiek S' 2t6. 1690 

n02. oirra^ rd Kpia; ttoKKtiv ye revdeiav Xe7e69. 

ovK el fieff TjfJLcSv; 
HP. ev ye fievtav SierlOijv, 

HEI. dX\d yafiiKfjv x^^^^ Soto) ti^ Sevpo fJML 

[Exeu^ FeUhetairos amd the three gods. 

After cm intervcU enter Third Messenger. 

AF. r eS wdvT dr^add irpdrrovre^, cS fiel^o) \6yov, 
(S rpifffia/cdpiov 7m]v6v opvlOcav 761/09, 


Tri, Dipritti girli biggi royalbaki 
Abirdi yieldimL 

H&r. He says he yields. 

Po8. No, no! he does not really say he yields, leso 

But only twitters as the swallows do. 

Pel, Why, then he says he yields her to the swallows. 

Po8, "Well, draw your clauses, and arrange between you : 
For, since you're both agreed. 111 say no more. 

Her. Our vote is, to admit all your conditions. less 

But come with us to heaven yourself: there take 
The Princess Boyalty and all her trousseau. 

PeL In seasonable time then for the wedding 
These birds were slaughtered. 

Her. Will you let me stay 

Meantime and roast this meat, while you depart? laoo 

Po8, You roast the meat? much tastiug's what you want. 
Come on with us. 

Her, I should have been in clover. 

Pel. Let some one get me out a wedding-mantle. 

[Exev/nt PeUhetairoi a/nd the three gods. 

After cm interval enter Third Messenger. 
Thvrd M, O ye of every coimtless good possest, 
O flying race of birds, supremely blest, 


TPI. kclKovi, Kipawa koX /leyaXa fiaciXivav 

opviTo irapaSiScofii. 
HP. wapaBovvai X^et. 

nOS. fict rbv A/* ov;^ oiro^ ye irapaSovvac \iyei, 1680 

el firj I3afipd^€c y &a7rep al j(€Ki86ve^. 

IIEL ovKovv irapaSovpat raU ^eX^Sdo-^i/ Xiyei. 

nOS. (rffxi vvp SuiWdTT€<r0e xal ^vfilSaivere* 
iyd 8', iireiS'^ a^^v Soxet, a-iytja-ofiai, 

HP. i^p,tv a \iy€i^ cri) Trdvra axjyxfopelv Boxei. 1685 

aW* Wc fbeff Tjfjmv airrh^ i^ rbv ovpavop, 
Iva Trjv ^aaCkeuLv koX tcL ttAvt ixel Xd^ri^, 

HEI. 69 Kai,phv dpa KaTeKSmja'av ovtolI 
€9 T0^9 ydfiov^. 

HP, fiovXeaOe Brjr €7(0 Tea>9 

OTTTcS rd Kpea ravrl fiepcjv; vfiel^ S' tre, 1690 


n02. 07rTp9 tA Kpia ; woXXi;!/ 76 revOeiav Xeyev'i, 

oifK el fieff 7J/Jboiv; 
HP. ev ye fiijrfav SieriOrjv, 

HEI. dXXd yafiLKTJv j^XapiSa Borto ri^ Sevpo fioi,, 

[Exev/rU FeUhetairos cmd the three gods. 

After cm mterval enter Third Messenger. 

AF, r (J irdpT dr/a0d Trpdrropre^, cS fiel^o) \6yoVy 
(S TptafiaKdpcop wrrjpdp oppiOtop yivo^y 


Beceive the monarch in his prosperous home. 

He comes, he comes: like him in goldbright dome 

Ne'er dawn'd to view the foll-orVd glittering star: mo 

No beamy splendour of the sun from far 

Shone forth so glorious as the queenly bride 

Of untold beauty moving by his sida 

Flashing the wingkL levin-bolt of Jove 

He comes, while soars to vaulted skies above I7i5 

A scent unutterable, beauteous sights 

And incense-breezes coil a smoky lights 

Himself appears: the goddess Muse to-day 

Behoves from holy lips to pour the auspicious lay. 

Peithetaibos amd Basileia descmd vn, a flying coTf whUe the 

Chorus sings, 

Cho. Boom /or the convpcmy I cheerily , merrily wo 

Flutter wraumd hwm^ 

Wishing him joy of ike joy ihat has eroum*d him I 
bHssf UissI 

What bloom 0/ youth, what hea/uty this! 


To the city of thy sway 

Ha^ftpy is thy rruji/rriage danf, iTs 

Great f&rt/wne for the Birds is stored, 
Yea, great, through this victorious lord. 
So with HyvMfrCs songs of glee 
And bridal carols welcome ye 
Him a/nd his partner Royalty. iTao 


84')(€a'0e Tbv Tupavvov 6\l3loi<: Sofioi^. 

'irpoa-€pj(€T(U yap 0Z09 ovB^ irafKfHirj^ 

darrjp tSetv tKafi'^e ypvaaxryel 86fi(p* 17 10 

ovS* riXlov TTiXavyk^ cuctIvcjv <re\a9 

ToiovTov i^ekap/^eVy olov lpj(€Ta^ 

ej^tov yvvaiKO^ koXXo^ ov <f>aT6p Xeye&i^, 

TToXXoDv K€pavv6v, 7rT€po<f>6pov ^169 l3iKo^' 

dap/rj S' dvoDvopxLOTOf; h fidOo^ /ev/cKov 17 15 

)((opei, KoXbv diap^' Ovp^iapbdranv S* 

aipai hui/>^alpov<TL irXeKrdvrjv xairvov. 

oil Sk KavTo^ iariv. dKKd jfpfj 0ed^ 

MoTiarj^ dvoiyetv iepdv ei^ptov OTop^a. 

Peithetaibos cmd Basileia descend in a flymg cary wkUe the 

Gkorus sings, 

XO. avtvye, SUx^, irdpaye, irdpex^' i7«o 


p,dKapa pAxapc adv T6')(a. 

CO ^ev ^€v T^9 &pa^, rod koXKov^, 

c3 p^a/capioTOP ai^ ydp^v r'pSe iroket yifipMS, 1715 

p>eyd\ai p^eyoKai KaTiy(pvac rv^ai 

761/09 OpvlOdDV 

Zi^ rSvBe t6v avSp*. oXX' vp^vaioi,^ 
Kal wp^iSlouTi Si'x^eaff ^a?9 
'avTov Kal Ttjv Boo'/Xetai/. 1730 






Song I. 

When the goddess Fates allied 

To fferoy his Olympian bride, 

Himy the high cmd heamefidy One^ 

Him who held the exalted throney 
They samg the song of Hymen Hymenams, 

Croldenrwvn^dy the bloomy Love 

His chariot UghtHy reining drove^ 

With his present power to bless 

Jove^s and Hera^s happiness. 
And soffig the song of Hymen Hymenaeus. 

Fei. Your lays they are sprightful, your music delightful^ 
ur language is striking, and quite to my liking. 

Oho. Sta^ yet a little while and sing 

The earth-descending crashes, 1745 

The fiery-gleaming flashes, 
The terrible white boU of Zeus the Mng. 

Song II. 

the mighty golden blaze of lighlmimg ! 

the flmny spea/r of Zeus irnvmrntal! 

^ hooflrsely echoed peals of thunder mo 

Swdlmg all the cloudy vault from trnder^ 
And lM rush of rain, from hewoerCs high portal/ 
Now with these ov/r chief the eoflrth is frightening. 


"Hpa iroT 6\vfjL7rla 
T&v ^Xifidrcov 9p6v(ov 
dpxovra deoh fiiyap 
Molpac ^uv€Kolfii<Tav 
TOt^S* vfievaC^. i735 

6 S' dfiif>tdcLKri<; "TStpco^ 

'Xpvaoirrepo^ rjvLa^ 

eSdwe iraXiVTovov^, 

Zrfvd^ irapo^o^ ydfjuov 1740 

KevSalfiopo^ ^Hpa9. 

IIEI. ixdprjv ifivoL^, c^opv^ ^al^' 

arfafuu hk \6y(ov. 
XO. dye vvv avrov 

/cal T^9 xOovUl^ KK^a-are ^povra^ 1745 

Ta9 re irvpoiSec^ Acb^ darepoirw; 

SeivSv T dpyrjra /cepavvop. 

«! fiiya ^(pvaeov darepoirrj^ <f>do^, 

(2 Afto? Afi^poTov Sjxo^ irvp(f>6pop, 

c3 ')(06vuii I3apvax€€^ 1750 

Ofil3po<l}6pov ff afia iSpovrai, 

aU oSe vvv yOova aelcL 

ACT m. 

AU the power of Jove he comes poeeeswng; 

BoyaUy^ who in glory splendid 

On the aaieient throne of Zeu$ aUended, 

He bringe hy his side in statdy pride^ 

His queen, his bride, his blessing. 

Sing we the song of Hymen Hymenaeusf 

[The procession goes forth amidst jubHant music 

Oha Taralala, lalat 

Wqft the conqueror, waft on high. 
Thrilling lyre and Paean-cry ! 

TardUda, lalalaf 
Hail to thee, all hail to thee, 
Owr supremest deUy I rm 




Sia Se irama Kparrjaa^ 

KoX irapeSpop HaatXeiav ^6£ A609. 

[The procession goes forth cmddst jviilarU nrnsic, 
XO. oKaXaXal Irj iracciv, 

T^peXXa KdXXlvcKo^, S 

SaifiSvcav iireprare, 1765 



My Yerse Translation of The Birds, written in 1869 for use 
in Lectures on that play, was published in 1874 by Messrs 
Macmillan. Its Introduction treats of Greek Comedy, especially 
the old Attic Comedy of Aristophanes, its greatest author, and 
of his eleven plays, its only extant samples : — of The Birds, as 
among these perhaps the most striking and most popular: — of 
the controversies waged about its character and design : — finally 
stating and supporting by internal evidence my own view of this 
question. Readers, who would comprehend this drama from its 
author's stand-point, should consult my Introduction, and Grote's 
History of Greece, Part ii. Chapters lvii, lviii. These chapters 
(from p. 127 to p. 211 of the octavo edition, including the 
events of 416 — 415 B.C.) contain that portion qf Athenian history 
which must be known by those who would appreciate the general 
design and specific humour of this admirable comedy. 

It competed for a prize on the Athenian stage at the Greater 
(or City) Dionysia in the month of March (Elaphebolion) 414 b.c. 
(about 2300 years ago), gaining only the second prize, the first 
being awarded by the judges to The Koniastai of Ameipsias. As 
the preparation for the appearance of such a drama would require 
some considerable time, we must assume that Aristophanes 
delivered his written work to the * Choragus ' of his tribe, (say) in 
some part of January (Gamelion), and that he had, therefore, 
finished its composition towards the close of 415 b.c. That time 
was one of the most critical and anxious in Athenian history. 



When the Sicilian expedition was voted in the spring of 
ac. 415, there were in Athens three political parties. The demo- 
cratic majority, partisans of progress and of war, who had former- 
ly supported Kleon, were now led by the daring and able, but 
nnprincipled Alkibiades, who, bom of high family and possessing 
great wealth, flattered the popular ambition to serve his own. A 
smaller body of citizens, moderate in political feeling, were 
generally guided by the advice of Nikias, whose pacific and con- 
servative character was liable to the dangerous faults of indolence 
and superstition. Behind these parties lay in the shade a third, 
the oligarchic faction, not large in numbers, and afraid to avow 
itself, but formidable from its organization, which was conducted 
by secret societies or clubs, called Hetaeries (hetaireiai). The 
members of these were bound by oath to support each other 
mutually in lawsuits and candidature for office, and to propagate 
their political objects at the risk of property and life. The 
partisans of Kikias disliked the character and dreaded the policy 
of AJkibiades : the oligarchic clubbists went farther still ; they 
hat<ed him personally, as the French aristocrats in 1789 hated 
Lafayette, considering him a deserter from his order, and one who 
fostered democratic influence as the basis of a virtual tyranny for 
himself. Among the leaders of these Hetaeries in 415 were, 
Andokides, son of Leogoras, a voung and wealthy Eupatrid; 
Peisander (Peisandrus) of Acharnae, a cowardly intriguer, who 
afterwards became a traitor; Charikles, in later years one of the 
Thirty; and the orator An tiphon, son of the sophist Sophilus. Of 
these, Antiphon alone had been hitherto bold enough to oppose 
Alkibiades in public. Kor was it in these political parties only 
that Alkibiades had enemies at work against him. Many of the 
small fry in the Ekklesia, Kleonumos, Androkles, and others, 
envied his popularity, and resented the stings of his scornful 
eloquenca The priests, with Lampon and Diopeithes at their 
head, abhorred the freethinker, whose mockeries of religion im- 
paired their influence, and might tend to diminish their profits. 


The comic stage was enlisted in the same cause. Eupolis probably 
exhibited at the Dionysia of the city, in March 415, his comedy 
called The Baptae, in which the licentious revels and nocturnal 
profanities of Alkibiades and his boon companions were held up 
to public indignation. This attack is said to have irritated 
Alkibiades, but it did not avail to shake his influence. 

The expedition to Sicily had been voted, Nikias, Alki- 
biades, and Lamachos being in .command as strategoi ; and the 
preparation of the armament was proceeding. The opponents 
of the scheme had called in the aid of superstition to prevent its 
execution, but without success. The popular will was para- 
mount: and the armada continued its preparation, when a fact 
occurred which startled Athens, and led to the most momentous 
consequences. This was the mutilation of the Hermae, justly 
called by Mr Grote *one of the most extraordinary events in 
all Grecian history.' These Hermae, or haK* statues of the god 
Hermes, which stood in the streets of Athens, are described by the 
same historian as ' blocks of marble about the size of the human 
figure.' See CL lviii. p. 146. On the morning of the 11th of 
May, B.G 415, all these Hermae were found to have been mutilated 
by unknown hands. The characteristic features of each had been 
destroyed, and nothing left but a rude mass of stone. One Hermes 
only had been spared, if the account given by Andokides may be 
trusted ; and that stood near the house of his father Leogoras. 

The effect produced by so daring a sacrilege on the population 
of what Sophokles (Oed. Col, 260) calls the most god-revering 
of cities, could not fail to be tremendous. Horror, alarm, con- 
fusion, suspicion were widely felt, and everywhere displayed ; for 
those who were in the secret counterfeited these emotions, and 
strove to propagate them. Historians are agreed, for the most 
part, that the crime was conceived and executed with a view 
to depopularize and destroy Alkibiades : and the secrecy of 
its execution points to the oligarchic hetaeries as the contrivers 
and agents. Their plan was to fanaticize the popular mind 



hy this sacrilege, and, when inquisition was made, to extend the 
inquiry to all offences against religion, by which means they 
could not fail to inculpate Alkibiades. In this course they might 
calculate with full assurance on the aid of the priests, headed by 
the same Diopeithes who, seventeen years before, under the 
administration of Perikles, had inspired and conducted the 
measures against the philosopher Anaxagoras, which compelled 
him to fly from Athens. Unsuccessful in their former efforts, the 
clubbists were resolved, by one grand corip, to succeed now. 
And succeed they did in their main object, the ruin of their hated 
rival; but with him they ruined the Sicilian enterprise, they 
ruined their country, and in the long run, by a righteous retri- 
bution, they ruined themselves and their party. 

The Council of 500 met, and summoned a special Ekklesia, 
which voted a Commission of Inquiry. Among the chief in- 
quisitors were Peisander and Charikles, who were not improbably 
in the secret of the plot. A reward of 10,000 drachmas (nearly 
£400) was offered for information : but none as yet came in. A 
further reward of 1000 drachmas was then proposed, on the 
motion of Kleonumos, for all information respecting acts com- 
mitted in violation of religious worship. Still several weeks 
passed without any denunciation. At length, on the very day 
when the strategoi (Nikias, Lamachos and Alkibiades) were to 
report the completion of the armament, and receive their final 
orders from the people, one Puthonikos, an agent of the con- 
spirators, mounted the bema, and warned the citizens of the danger 
incurred by sending as commander of the fleet a violator of the 
highest religious sanctities. Alkibiades, he said, had profaned 
religion by a mock celebration of the Eleusinian mysteries in 
the house of Polytion, and in the company of other profligate 
youni? men. A slave Andromachus was brought forward to 
LtabLx this charge by his evidence : and Puthonikos .ent on to 
denounce Alkibiades as implicated in the mutilation of the 
Hermae; a gross and manifest calumny. Whether for this 


reason or for others, the accusation did not gain credence. 
Androkles renewed and extended the charges in another Assembly, 
but the resolute denial of Alkibiades was received with applause. 
Hereupon the conspirators, affecting moderation, proposed to with- 
draw them for the time, and to defer the inquiry concerning the 
mysteries till the return of Alkibiades. Against this course he 
himself protested strongly, demanding an immediate trial, a full 
acquittal or a capital condemnation. His friends do not seem to 
have discerned as clearly as he did the wisdom of insisting on this 
demand. He was not adequately supported ; and his enemies so 
far succeeded as to send him to Sicily without a previous trial 
and acquittal. In June, 415, the armada sailed for Sicily. 

The inquisition which then took place at Athens my readers 
will find in Mr Grote's narrative. Enough here to say that the 
charges of impiety were renewed against Alkibiades in his absence. 
And so many acts of this kind were now imputed, that his enemies 
found it an easy matter to obtain a decree of accusation against 
him, and of recall to answer the charges in person. His 
impeachment before the Council of 500 was moved by Thessalos 
son of Kimon, one of the oligarchic party, and seconded by the 
democratic orator Androkles. The motion being accepted, the 
state-galley Salaminia was despatched to summon him home : the 
trierarch being ordered not to seize his person, but to allow him 
to sail to Athens in his own galley. The Salaminia found the 
Athenian fleet at Katana, in Sicily. Alkibiades obeyed the 
summons, but on the homeward voyage he escaped from Thurii 
in Italy, in September 415. 

On the return of the Salaminia to Athens without Alkibiades, 
he was condemned to death par corUwmace^ his property was 
confiscated, and a solemn curse was pronounced upon him by the 
priests. Such was the sad state of things at Athens when 
Aristophanes wrote The Birds in the autumn and winter of 415. 

What were his political feelings at that time? We cannot 
say with absolute assurance, but what we surmise is this. As a 


joung man, before the Peace of Nikias (421 b.c.) he had ever 
been a strong opponent of the war-policy initiated by Pericles and 
followed up by Cleon. He had celebrated the Peace with joy in 
the comedy which bears that name. But a man of his intelligence 
could not be blind to the incompetence of Nikias as a statesman and 
a commander ; and though Alkibiades now led the party to which 
our poet had always been opposed, Aristophanes would not regard 
him with the same dislike that he had felt and avowed for Cleon. 
He would respect the rank and wealth of the young aspirant to 
power : he might admire his freedom from superstition, his 
contempt of priestcraft. Whether he agreed with Nikias in 
deprecating the invasion of Sicily, we are not informed; but 
supposing such to have been his sentiment, we may be sure 
that, when once Athens had entered upon that perilous enterprise, 
our poet would earnestly desire his country's success, and would 
see that its best chance lay in reliance on the commanding genius 
of Alkibiades. 

If any competent scholar will take the trouble to examine the 
political situation of the latter part of 415 b.c., the positions of 
the men concerned, their relations to each other, their antecedents 
and probable feelings, considering also the nature of the old Attic 
Comedy and the characteristics of the Aristophanic Plays, such a 
scholar will be led to the same conclusion as myself; that Aristo- 
phanes intended in The Birds to answer and counteract TIieBapiae 
of his rival Eupolis ; that he wished, so far as he dared, to favour 
Alkibiades; and that, above all things, his aim was to laugh 
down and vanquish by the force of ridicule the fanaticism pre- 
valent in Athens at the time when his play was given to the 
Choragus. Open protest of his feelings he does not make; he 
does not dare to make it in the face of the rabid and now 
victorious oligarchs and priests. The name of Alkibiades is not 
mentioned anywhere. It was not possible to speak with open 
favour of one who was undoubtedly at that moment a condemned 
exile, though, probably, not yet known to be an actual traitor and 


a counsellor of the Spartans against his country. But in the 
course of the play, straws enough are thrown up to shew how the 
wind was blowing in the poet's mind. I do not speak only of its 
great topic, banter and mimic war against the Olympian deities 
and their ministers, but of the departure of the two friends (line 34 
foil., 123) from a miserable squabbling Athens; of the horror 
with which a Salamiuian trireme looming with a summoner on 
board is mentioned (147) ; of the scorn expressed for Aristokrates 
(126) and Peisander (1556), two oligarchs whom the poet was not 
afraid to irritate, of the vvo-rafctv icat /xeXXovifccav in 638 — 9, just 
at the time when Nikias was, by wretched procrastination as a 
commander, throwing away all chance of success (see Grote 
ch. Lviii) ; of the ridicule cast on political and religious suspicion 
in the second epirrhema, where reward is offered for the heads of 
dead tyrants and a possibly dead atheist, Diagoras (1071 foil.) 
But scarcely has the poet launched these last shafts, than, 
seeming to fear they may be felt too keenly, he calls forth a 
hearty laugh by offering a still higher re\fard to any one who will 
take alive the poulterer Philokrates. In-short, the whole tenour 
of the play from first to last seems to indicate one design : and if 
that design is not quite so plainly shewn as Moli^re's in the 
Tartuffe, yet the real purpose of the Greek is not less clear than 
that of the French comic poet. 

In short, the purpose of Ths Birck is this : — it is meant to he an 
a/ntidote to the religious fury which at tha^ time vxis the bane of Athens. 
At least one third of its lines contain ridicule of the gods and their 
priesthood, with details of their humiliation and defeat. (See 
Argument.) Yet, amidst this general flouting of the deities, one 
god, a very vulnerable one, escapes. This is Hermes, whom in his 
drama last preceding, The Peace, Aristophanes had signally cari- 
catured. In The Birds, Iris, the female messenger of heaven, has 
to bear the brunt of comic persiflage. Is it not evident that the 
poet shrank from recalling to the public mind that god, to whose 
images (the Hermae) so gross an insult had been lately offered by 


secret mutilation 1 He -would not run the risk of laughing to 
scorn a deity whose wrongs had aroused so fierce a storm of 
popular wrath and superstitious horror. But he could venture to 
relax the clenched teeth and unknit the frowning brows of his 
audience by reminding them that to banter the Olympians was a 
privilege allowed to comic poets at the Dionysiac festivals. 

We may well suppose that Aristophanes would defer the 
constitution of his plot, so far as it concerned Athenian events 
and characters, till the time drew near when he meant to produce 
it on the stage. And, when the sad troubles o£ the spring and 
summer of 415 had embittered and afflicted the Athenian mind, 
when Nikias, by his timid inaction during the rest of the year, 
was losing the best chance of capturing Syracuse, our poet would 
seek to divert his townsmen from their gloom, and to deal, from 
behind his comic shield, a smart slap in the face to Lampon, Dio- 
peithes and the whole confederacy of priests, soothsayers, and 
oligarchs. And this Aristophanes could dare to do, because he 
was a great poet of a people thus described by Geppert (Die 
Altgriechische JBuhne, p. 278) : 

"The Greeks denied nothing to their artist. They willingly 
delivered up to him all and everything, to fashion as he chose. 
To the comic poet they surrendered their deities, their political 
institutions, their public and private life, their social relations, 
even their own persons : all they required in return was, that he 
should produce a work worthy of such a god as Dionysus. And 
their poets have used the gift in a way which excites amazement. 
A creative power of humour and wit, which flung aside all fetters, 
has given birth to works of art, such as no time can rival. They 
are caricatures indeed, but in the largest style : they are parodies, 
but of a kind in which the Spirit of the age seizes the mask, and 
plays its own comedy. The Demos of Athens, the very Genius 
of Hellas, is the acting character in these inspired outbursts of 
comic scorn ; nay, it is also the suffering character, for it parodies 
itself. So was it with the Greeks. Yes, there has been a people 


proud enough to obey no laws but those of its own making ; great 
enough to laugh at its own follies : a vigorous, youthful people^ 
able to think and feel, as no nation of the earth has since their 
times thought and felt.'' 

A few Help-notes on the Translation are subjoined for the use 
of spectators not familiar with the original. 

Line 11. Exekestides, Akestor (under the name Sakas), 
Spintbarus &c. are ridiculed as persons claiming to be Athenian 
citizens without legal right. 

15. Tereus king of Thrace, changed into a hoopoe. See 
Classical Dictionary. 

16. * Bi-at of Tharraleides,' i.e. impudent creature: probably a 
mere nickname, from 'tharraleos,' audacious, 

28. * To go to the ravens,' a saying equivalent in meaning to 
*go to the deuce.' 

31. Sakas : see note on line 11. 

58. Hoopopoi: a pun on the hoopoe (epops) and the word 
epopoia,' *epic poetry.' 

61. Runner-bird, *trochilos,' perhaps wagtail. 

71. Cock-fighting was an Athenian amusement. 

77. * Phalerian whitebait.' Phaleron was the eastern harbour 
of Athens. 

96. * May you be smashed' was a Gi*eek term of imprecation. 

100. Sophocles wrote a tragedy on the fable of Tereus, with 
that title. 

102. 'Bird or peacock.' Peacocks were a novelty from the 
East. *Omis' bird, was often used to signify the domestic fowl : a 

109. 'Heliasts': i.e. jurymen (dicasts) in the court called 
Heliaea; a skit on the prevalence of litigation at Athens. 

123. 'Kranaan.' Athens gained this title from an ancient 
hero Kranaus. 


126. 'Skellias' youngster* ; Aristokrates, one of the oligarchic 
party, afterwards put to death b.c. 406. 

154. Salaminia. The Paralos and Salaminia were two 
public galleys, used for messages to officers abroad, and for convey- 
ing accused persons to Athens. This passage shews that the 
comedy was written after Alkibiades had been summoned home. 

182 — 4. The words *8ite' and 'city' are used as parallel 
to the play of words in the Greek; pQlos, p5lis. 

186. *Melion famine.* Helps was starved into surrender. 

194. As swearing is the attestation of a dreaded power, the 
birds are made to swear by objects they may be supposed to dread. 

267. The two birds that first appear are a * flamingo (phae- 
nicopteros), and one called Medos, supposed to be a variety of the 
domestic cock. The words (276) * holding an uncommon site' are 
parodied from a tragedy of Sophocles. They are augural. 

358. The owl will not molest the pot, because an owl perched 
on a pot was carried in the procession of the Panathenaea. 

363. Nikias was much esteemed for his skill in the conduct 
of sieges. 

497. Allmus, a deme of the tribe Leontis, near the Fhalerian 

501. Kites were wrongly supposed to migrate: hence the 
kite first seen after return was saluted. 

515. As we nowhere else hear of birds on the head of statues 
we must surmise that Aristophanes puts a comic fact in the mouth 
of his hero to support a comic logic. 

521. Lampon, a soothsayer of the time, mentioned again 988. 
Swearing by animals and trees was a curious practice, intended 
to avoid irreverent mention of deities. Xrjva (goose) is supposed 
to be such a substitution for Zvjva (Jove). 

523. 'Jacks,' Gr. Manas. Manes was an ordinary slave's 

693. Prodikos, a famous sophist, whose forte was philology. 

712. Orestes, a footpad and cloak-robber. 


720. As omens -were familiarly drawn from the flight and the 
cries of birds, * bird ' became in Greek and Latin a common word 
for 'omen.' 

746. 'The Mountain Mother' is the goddess Kybele. 

766. *Peisias' son/ one Meles, a harper. Of his treasons 
nothing is known. 

807. * The poet' Aeschylus, who, in a lost play, cites the well- 
known fable of the eagle, killed by an arrow feathered from his 
own wing. 

815. A plant called 'sparton' (a kind of broom) was used to 
make a cheap bed-rope, called *Sparte,' here, by a pun, con- 
founded with the city so named. 

819. A city founded on 'clouds' and inhabited by 'cuckoos' 
(regarded as vain birds) represents an unreality, a castle in the air. 

826. Euelpides asks who shall occupy the Acropolis of the 
new city, and wear the splendid robe carried in the processions of 
Pallas Polias (Athene or Athenaia). 

831. Kleisthenes, an effeminate Athenian noble. 

832. Stork wall, 'Pelargikon' from pelargos a stork; pun upon 
the Pelasgic wall of the Athenian Acropolis. 

833. 'A bird of ours:* the cock whose crowing awakes 
people against their will. 

857. Chairis, a flute-player. 

860. * Mouth-piece.' Gr. phorbeia, a leather respirator fas- 
tened round the jaws by the flute-player to moderate the effusion 
of his breath. 

865 — 886. Here the style and dialect of the old Ionic 
liturgies are parodied, and their prose form kept. The new bird- 
deities are comically associated with the old, but to Hestia 
(Vesta), goddess of the hearth-fire, no bird-name is attached. She 
could not be omitted, being the maintainer of the holy flame in 
house, ward-room and town-halL The kite represents the hearth- 
guarding Zeus; the musical swan Apollo of Delphi and Delos; 
the mother-quail Lato (Latona) ; the goldfinch Artemis (Diana) ; 
'phrugilos' (1) is the mysterious Sabazian Dionysos of Phrygia '. 


the sparrow (or ostrich) the Great Mother Kybele. To these are 
added ludicrously a number of hero-birds (demigods), some with 
known names, others seemingly unreal inventions. 

869. Before this verse some lines of the liturgy are evidently 
lost, in which Poseidon (Neptune) was addressed as the Hawk 
worshipped at Sunium in Attica (Souniaratos). He is called Stork 
by a pun, being ' pelagikos,' sea-god; 'pelargos' is a stork. See above. 

874. Xolaenis, an old mysterious title of Artemis. 

875. ' Strouthos ' may mean either sparrow or ostrich : if 
the former is meant here, the Great Mother is parodied by 
ironical contrast, and Kleokritos, probably a big gawky person, 
will remind us of * Little John' in English legend. 

880. The Chians, till after the Sicilian defeat, were the most 
faithful allies of Athens, and named in its liturgies. 

918 — 19. Cycliari songs are 'dithyrambs': Parthenean, such 
as were sung by a choir of virgins (parthgnoi); Simonides, the 
famous lyric poet of Ceos (Zia). 

924 — 930. Pindar is parodied in these verses, and again at 
941 and 950. 

967. Oracles were sung in Homeric verse; and usually 
commence with *but,' being regarded as extracts from the Law- 
book of Fate. 

969. The Korinthians were the bitterest foes of Athens. 
They kindled the Peloponnesian War. 

970. Bakis, an ancient soothsayer. 

971. Pandora, the All-giving, a very suitable deity for this 
Soothsayer's purpose. 

997. Meton, a famous mathematician of the time, who 
invented a new calendar, called Meton's cycle. He resided in the 
Kolonos Agoraios, near the Stoa PoikilS. 

1009. Thales of Miletos, the great Ionic philosopher, one of 
the Seven Sages. 

1013. The laws of Lakedaemon (Sparta) forbade aliens to 
reside thera 

1021. Inspectors (episkopoi) were sent out to subject states 


-with an authority resembling that of modem governors. The 
Spartans called their inspectors 'harmostai' i.e. adapters. The 
'proxenoi* were resident citizens, who exercised towards the ruling 
state functions like those of modem 'consuls'. Sardanapalluu, the 
Assyrian king; the coxcombical dress and assuming manners 
of the episkopos are represented by this title (dainty don). 

1028. Pharnakes, the Persian satrap of Daskulitis. Both the 
Greek contending parties had now begun to court the Persian 

1035. The last intruder is a vendor of psephismas, i.e. of 
plebiscites or decrees of the Athenian Ekklesia. 

1041. * As those of Poland.' Gr. as those of the Olophuxians. 
Plophuxos was a colony on the Thracian coast. The name is used 
for the sake of the poor pun which follows: *Ototuxians/ i.e. 
Lamenters or Sobbers. , Poland and Woland are used to exhibit 
the point of this comic jest. 

1072. Diagoras of Melos was a notorious atheist of the time. 
Here Aristophanes evidently glances with some contempt at the 
measures taken against the suspected Hermokopidae. See 
Grote, LViii. 

1106. Lauriotic owls: ie. coins of silver from the mines of 
Laurion, bearing the image of an owl, the bird of Pallas. 

1121. Gr. 'breathing Alpheios,' i.e. panting like a racer at 
Olympia, where the river Alpheios skirted the race ground. 

1150-51, After Karoiriv one line and a half, possibly two lines 
and a half, are lost. The translation supplies by guesswork, which 
cannot be far wrong. 

1155. 'Yellow-hammers,' Gr. pelicans, containing a pun. 
The birds are altered in translation, to retain the comic jest. 

1203-4. The floating dress of Iris suggests the ludicrous 
question, 'bark or bonnet?' And her answer, 'Swift Iris,' 
suggests another, which of the two svnft triremes, 'Paralos or 
Salaminia % ' 

1242 foil. 'Likymnian bolts,* 'Lydian or Phrygian,' 'Am- 
phion's domes.' The expressions are parodies from tragedies. 


1250. 'Magogian birds/ Gr. porphyrions, harmless seabirds, 
suggesting the giant Porphyrion. 

1281, &c ' Lakonomaniacs.' There was always at Athens 
an affected minority who admired and imitated the 'total 
abstinence' of the Spartans from all kinds of luxury. These 
persons, says the herald, 'es5krat6n,' 'had the Socratic malady.' 
The plain style of living adopted by Sokrates is unjustly called 
•dirtiness.* They carried skytal-staves, Gr. ' eskutaliophoroun.' 
The skytald was a staff invented at Sparta for secret communica- 
tion with civil and mUitary officers. 

1292-99. Among the persons here caricatured, we know nothing 
of the shopkeeper or of Menippos : Fhilokles was the tragic poet, 
who gained the prize against the Oedipus Tyrannus of Sophokles. 
Lykurgos had probably a taint of Egyptian blood, hence called 
ibis: Chaerephon is the pallid gloomy-looking disciple of Sokrates; 
Surakosios a loquacious demagogue. Meidias had an ugly scar 
on his forehead. The game of quail-smiting consisted in filliping 
the poor bird's head, which if he bore without flinching, his owner 
was victorious. 

1365. The 'wing' is a shield, the 'spur' a spear. 
1410. The Informer enters singing a catch of Alkaios. His 
Greek title is ' sukophantes,' afterwards extended to include 
all who live at other people's cost. Hence our word 'sycophant.' 
1416-17. 'Upon his cloak.' The cloak is 'dappled' with 
patches and holes. The next line refers to the saying, 'one 
swallow does not make a summer.' 

1421. ' Woolston.' Gr. Pellene ; a Greek Bradford, renowned 
for its woollen goods. 

1463. The whips of Korkura were famous. 
1468. 'Justice-twisting tricks.' Such an imitation of the 
Greek as ' pettifoggicorascality  seems to me an error in taste, 
unsuited to the genius of our language. As well might the word 
of six lines in the Ecclesiazusae which describes the menu of* a 
feast be rendered in some such style as turtilo consommo-salmono- 
turboto-cotelletto-sirloino, &c, &q. 


1474. * Beyond Hart*: lit. 'farther off than Kardia/ which 
Ib a town in the Thracian Chersonese. Kleonumos, though tall 
and good-looking, is branded as a worthless coward. He was 
among the enemies of Alkibiades. 

1479. 'Load of figs, &g,* Gr. sukophantei, meaning that he 
lays informations, probably in the affair of the Hermae. 

1491. Orestes the footpad is called a hero, because his name 
is that of Agamemnon's son. 

1494. The scene with Prometheus is highly comic and a 
broad caricature of the Promethean myth, as exhibited by 
Aeschylus in three dramas, of which only the 'Prometheus 
Vinctus * survives. 

1500. 'Towards four o^clock.' Gr. boulutos, 'the time of 
loosing oxen.' See Hom. IL x'vi. 779. 

1519. 'In the Thesmophorian days.' The Thesmophoria 
were solemnized by married women from the 9th to the 13th 
of Puanepsion (November). They required abstinence on account 
of certain mysteries. 

1520. ' Barbarian gods.' As barbarous tribes dwelt north of 
Greece, Aristophanes ludicrously supposes barbarous gods existing 
above the heavenly Olympus, and gives them the title of a very 
fierce and wild Thracian tribe, the Triballi. This conception is 
carried out with the raciest humour in the next scene. 

1527. 'His sire-god.* The members of a ward (phratria) 
worshipped a common Zeus and Apollo, each called ' ho patroos * 
(sire-god). On Exekestides see note on line 11. 

1530. 'A tribe allied.' This jeu de mots is substituted for 
that in the Greek text ; which cannot be rendered in English. 

1536. 'Boyalty.' Gr. Basileia. This title personifies the 
kingly power of Zeus. 

1541. ' Paymaster,* Gr. kolagretes, an officer at Athens, who 
paid jurymen their fees. 

1546. 'Through whom we grilL* Prometheus was punished 
by Zeus for stealing fire from heaven, and giving it to mortals. 


1548. 'Hate of gods.' By using a somewhat rare and 
ambiguous word, Peithetairos seems to imply that the gods hate 
Prometheus. But Prometheus accepts it in the other sense, 
calling himself a Timon who hates the gods. 

1552. * Basket-bearer.' Gr. kanSphdros, a maiden who carried 
a sacred basket in the Panathenaean procession. A camp-stool was 
carried by another maiden, for her occasional relief. 

1568. 'To the right.' The Athenian fashion was, to pass the 
cloak (himation) over the left shoulder, drawing it round the back 
towards the right, carrying it beneath the right arm, which re- 
mained free, finally bringing it back to the left shoulder, where it 
was clasped, hanging down gracefully. This was called 'epi-dexia', 
'rightward manner'. The Triballian god was arraying himself in 
the reverse way, and is rebuked by the polite and courtly 
Poseidon for being so gauclie, 

1579. Peithetairos here baits his hook for Herakles (Her- 
cules), whose gluttonous tastes appear in the Alkestis of Euripides; 
and affects throughout a supreme indifference to the presence of the 
envoys. Herakles nibbles at once. Peith. spins his bait again 
at line 1602 and finally hooks his fish at 1673. 

1615. 'Nabaisatreu.' Kock interprets this; 'let us three go 

1645. This and all that follows is highly comic. Zeus, the 
supreme god, is supposed to die and leave all his property to be 
distributed according to Attic law. 

1682. The Greeks likened barbarians to swallows, as twitter- 
ing and roaming foreigners. 

1720. The quick return of Peithetairos from heaven with his 
bride Basileia, shows how little Greek comedy cared for the famous 
unities of Tragedy. His final triumph convinces me that in him 
Aristophanes meant to delineate Alkibiades, and to hint that 
success in a great enterprise cannot be achieved without boldness, 
decision and promptitude, qualities in which AJkibiades excelled, 
while Nikias, though brave and virtuous, was deficient in them. 



In the Clouds the Parabasis proper is in the peculiar metre in- 
vented by Eupolis, thence called Eupolidean. The Frogs, Lysistrata, 
Ekklesiazuaae and Phit/aa have no Parabasis. But in the other six 
extant plays of Aristophanes, the AchamiomSy Knights, Wasps, 
Fecbce, Birds, Thesmophoriazusae, the Parabasis proper is in the 
metre called Anapaestic Tetrameter Catalectic. This was so usual 
that in three of these plays this portion of the drama is called 
' the Anapaests.' 

Mr Erere's clever translation of the Parabasis represents 
his own witty conception, but not the mind of Aristophanes. 
Mr Frere has most ably striven to imitate the supposed utterance 
of Birds, fluttering, tremulous, irresolute, eager, irregular; snatches 
and bursts of speech. He probably thou]ght (for such used to be 
the prevalent notion) that the Parabasis was recited by the full 
chorud of Birds. We know now that it was spoken by one, the 
Coryphaeus : and there is little doubt that here the Coryphaeus 
was the grave, solemn, pompous owl. This Parabasis was there- 
fore uttered as steadily, as deliberately, as magniloquently as a 
royal speech, or a judgment of the Lord Chancellor from the 
Woolsack. Fluttering is altogether out of place as representing 
the original here, however appropriate to the Parodos, to the 
Ode and Antode, or other places, where the poet marks it 
by stuttering, by agglomeration of short syllables, by repetitions 
(epopopopopopopopopoi), or by imitative sounds (tio, tio, trioto, 
totobrix, (fee). The humour of the Parabasis proper is quite 
different, nay, it is the very reverse of this. Its language is in 
the highest degree full and loud-sounding, bombastic, epically 
grandiloquent : the wit consists altogether in Parody and Irony. 
The theogonies of the Orphic poets, which formed the frequent 



subject-matter of sophistic lectures, especially of the lectures 
delivered by Prodikos, are here ludicrously parodied-* the Birds 
being put in the place of the gods. And herein is the laughable 
Irony of the whole passage. In the most high-flown serio-comic 
style (such as readers of our dramatic literature will remember in 
the Midsummer NigMa Dream, in Bomhastea Furioso, and in The 
Critic), the Coryphaeus proclaims the Birds to be a race of beings 
older than gods, supreme benefactors of mankind, their true 
prophets and interpreters; and in the Makron he promises from 
them every blessing to the human race for ever and ever, even to 
surfeiting. Such, and such alone, is the humorous design of this 
passage, to which mock-gravity, mock-dignity, mock-sententious- 
ness, and an ea^-cathedra judicial air are absolutely essential; 
while anything like fluttering hesitation and palpitating haste are 
not only foreign, but hostile, to its purpose. I must not forget to 
add that one of the critics talks of 'fluttering anapaests.' Indeed? 
If Birds are supposed to 'flutter' in anapaests, what of the sturdy 
Coal-heavers of Achamae] what of the stalwart Knights of 
Athens? Do they 'flutter' also in the anapaestic movement 
of their Parabases? There is no metrical foot which Bird-motion 
may not be supposed to imitate. If a hop and a skip tlpx>ugh a 
tree, ending with a jump to the ground, may represent an 
anapaest, a jump on the ground followed by a hop and skip into a 
tree, may represent a dactyl, and so on. 

In my translation of the Parabasis I substituted Trochaic for 
Anapaestic rhythm, because I thought it more likely to please. 
I could have imitated the original with more ease, as the 
following Anapaestic version, printed in 1874, will shew. 

Ho ye men who by nature are dim-lived, attend, ye most sem- 
blant of all to the leaf-race. 

Little furnish'd with strength, and mere figments of clay, sha- 
dow-wrought population and nerveless; 


O ye wingless ephemerals, bom to endure, O je men that are 

mortal and dreamlike, 
Unto us the immortals give diligent heed, unto us who are ever 

The etherial dwellers, untouched by old age, the devisers of plans 

never-ending : 
That, when once ye have learnt all the lore that we teach of 

the regions above so veracious. 
When ye know to the full the trae nature of birds, the descent 

of the gods, and the rivers 
That through Chaos and Erebus run, ye may bid prosy Prodikos 

hang for the future. 
First Chaos and Night and black Erebos were, and grim Tarta- 

ros widely extended; 
But at that time nor Earth was in being, nor Air, nor the 

Heaven itself was existing. 
When in Erebos' limitless lap first of all did the dark-plumed 

Night lay a wind-egg. 
Whence in due revolution of seasons sprang Love, the dispenser 

of all that is sweetest, 
With his pinions of gold shining brightly behind, and in speed 

like to wind-rolling eddies. 
He in Tartaros wide, as the legend imports, with the dark misty 

Chaos uniting. 
Became father of us ; and there nurtured our race, till we came 

forth to light for the first time. 
There existed no race of immortals until Love wrought to the 

blending of all things ; 
But, when one with another was mingled, arose the great heaven, 

the earth and the ocean. 
And the stock never-dying of all happy gods. Thus of all 

blessed beings we're oldest. 
Many facts prove us children of Love ; for we fly, and are fond 

of consorting with lovers, 


Who, when other resources are fruitless, have found that the gift 

of a bird is effective, 
And the battle of love may be won by a quail, or a goose, or a 

finch or a sparrow. 
Of the many great blessings that mortals enjoy, those they get 

from the birds are the greatest. 
In the first place of seasons the signals we bring, of the winter, 

the spring and the summer. 
They must sow when the clangour is heard in the air of the 

crane into Libya retreating; 
At the same time he tells the ship-captain to hang up the 

rudder and tranquilly slumber; 
And he bids for Orestes be woven a cloak, lest he shiver and 

take to dismantling. 
The next bird after this that appears is the kite, introducing a 

different season, 
When the spring-laden fieece of the sheejp must be shorn : then 

the swallow next makes her appearance. 
Who declares it is time to dispose of the cloak and to purchase 

a blouse for the dogdays. 
Furthermore we are Ammon and Delphi to you, your Dodona, 

your Phoebus Apollo; 
For ye come to the birds first of all for advice^ ere ye go to 

your worldly vocations. 
To your commerce in marts, to the choice of a trade, and an- 
other, it may be, to marriage. 
Whatsoever about divination decides, with the title of bird ye 

endow it;" 
Ye pronounce it 'a bird,' be it oracle, sneeze, voice or omen or 

footman or donkey. 

So this question we ask, and the answer is plain; are we not 

your prophetic Apollo? 

S. M. Is^ 


Pabliahed miifinnnly with fhis edition, Price Is. 


thahslated by 


*^* The two editions (vre wrranged so as to correspond page 

for page throiighout.